Acute coronary syndromes in patients with renal failure
- Cite this article as:
- McCullough, P.A. Curr Cardiol Rep (2003) 5: 266. doi:10.1007/s11886-003-0061-9
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As the rates of obesity and diabetes continue to rise sharply in the United States, there is a secondary epidemic of diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with renal disease. Many sources of information support the concept that the metabolic condition caused by renal failure is an independent cardiac risk factor with a direct relationship to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes (ACS), heart failure, and arrhythmias. An estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 has consistently been shown to be the most powerful predictor of adverse outcomes in ACS. This paper focuses on ACS and highlights the major issues with respect to diagnosis and treatment in patients with underlying renal failure. Because patients with renal disease are routinely excluded from clinical trials of ACS, we draw upon a variety of clinical data sets to gather an evidenced-based approach to this important and growing population of patients.