Sex differences in the causes and natural history of heart failure
- Cite this article as:
- Hoppe, B.L. & Hermann, D.D. Curr Cardiol Rep (2003) 5: 193. doi:10.1007/s11886-003-0048-6
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome of increasing prevalence in the United States, with significant morbidity and mortality. Although men have a higher annual mortality rate, more women than men die from heart failure each year. Optimal disease management is critical in limiting the impact of heart failure on life quality, quantity, and health care expenditures. Women have a unique risk-factor profile and different clinical manifestations of heart failure than men. Understanding inherent sex differences in heart failure epidemiology, pathophysiology, and natural history is imperative in determining whether the optimal therapy for this prevalent and important syndrome is affected by sex.