Vascular Biology (RS Rosenson, Section Editor)

Current Atherosclerosis Reports

, 16:399

First online:

Vascular Imaging in Diabetes

  • K. LevittAffiliated withKeenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St Michael’s hospital, University of Toronto
  • , L. VivasAffiliated withKeenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St Michael’s hospital, University of Toronto
  • , B. CourtneyAffiliated withSunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of TorontoSchulich Heart Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre University of TorontoColibri Technologies Inc
  • , K. A. ConnellyAffiliated withKeenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St Michael’s hospital, University of Toronto Email author 

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Abstract

Diabetes is a global epidemic affecting individuals of all socioeconomic backgrounds. Despite intensive efforts, morbidity and mortality secondary to the micro- and macrovascular complications remain unacceptably high. As a result, the use of imaging modalities to determine the underlying pathophysiology, early onset of complications, and disease progression has become an integral component of the management of such individuals. Echocardiography, stress echocardiography, and nuclear imaging have been the mainstay of noninvasive cardiovascular imaging tools to detect myocardial ischemia, but newer modalities such as cardiac MRI, cardiac CT, and PET imaging provide incremental information not available with standard imaging. While vascular imaging to detect cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial disease non-invasively has traditionally used ultrasound, CT- and MRI-based techniques are increasingly being employed. In this review, we will provide an outline of recent studies utilizing non-invasive imaging techniques to assist in disease diagnosis as well as monitoring disease progression. In addition, we will review the evidence for newer modalities such as MR spectroscopy, 3D intravascular ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography that provide exquisite detail of metabolic function and coronary anatomy not available with standard imaging, but that have not yet become mainstream.

Keywords

Diabetes Vascular imaging Stress testing Stress echocardiography MRI CT angiogram Coronary artery disease SPECT PET Optical coherence tomography