Staels B, Dallongeville J, Auwerx J, et al. Mechanism of action of fibrates on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Circulation. 1998;98(19):2088–93.PubMed
Frick MH, Elo O, Haapa K, et al. Helsinki Heart Study: primary-prevention trial with gemfibrozil in middle-aged men with dyslipidemia. Safety of treatment, changes in risk factors, and incidence of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1987;317(20):1237–45.PubMed
Robins SJ, Collins D, Wittes JT, et al. Relation of gemfibrozil treatment and lipid levels with major coronary events: VA-HIT: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285(12):1585–91.PubMed
Keech A, Simes RJ, Barter P, et al. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;366(9500):1849–61.PubMed
ACCORD Study Group, Ginsberg HN, Elam MB, Lovato LC, et al. Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(17):1563–74.PubMed
Steiner G. Altering triglyceride concentrations changes insulin-glucose relationships in hypertriglyceridemic patients. Double-blind study with gemfibrozil with implications for atherosclerosis. Diabetes Care. 1991;14(11):1077–81.PubMed
Bajaj M, Suraamornkul S, Hardies LJ, et al. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and PPAR-gamma agonists on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2007;50(8):1723–31.PubMed
Playford DA, Watts GF, Best JD, et al. Effect of fenofibrate on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol. 2002;90(11):1254–7.PubMed
Hamilton SJ, Chew GT, Davis TM, et al. Fenofibrate improves endothelial function in the brachial artery and forearm resistance arterioles of statin-treated Type 2 diabetic patients. Clin Sci (Lond). 2010;118(10):607–15.
Wu TJ, Ou HY, Chou CW, et al. Decrease in inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers in hyperlipidemic diabetic patients treated with fenofibrate. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2007;37:158–66.PubMed
Oki K, Koide J, Nakanishi S, et al. Fenofibrate increases high molecular weight adiponectin in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Endocr J. 2007;54:431–5.PubMed
Idzior-Walus B, Sieradzki J, Rostworowski W, et al. Effects of comicronisedfenofibrate on lipid and insulin sensitivity in patients with polymetabolic syndrome X. Eur J Clin Investig. 2000;30(10):871–8.
Athyros VG, Papageorgiou AA, Athyrou VV, et al. Atorvastatin and micronized fenofibrate alone and in combination in type 2 diabetes with combined hyperlipidemia. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1198–202.PubMed
Keating GM. Fenofibrate: a review of its lipid-modifying effects in dyslipidemia and its vascular effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2011;11:227–47.PubMed
Okopien B, Krysiak R, Herman ZS. Effects of short-term fenofibrate treatment on circulating markers of inflammation and hemostasis in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:1770–8.PubMed
Wysocki J, Belowski D, Kalina M, et al. Effects of micronized fenofibrate on insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;42:212–7.PubMed
Krysiak R, Handzlik G, Okopien B. Hemostatic effects of fenofibrate in patients with mixed dyslipidemia and impaired fasting glucose. Pharmacol Rep. 2010;62:1099–107. This study found that fenofibrate improved insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome and fasting glucose in patients with impaired fasting glucose.
Krysiak R, Stachura-Kulach A, Okopien B. Metabolic and monocyte-suppressing actions of fenofibrate in patients with mixed dyslipidemia and early glucose metabolism disturbances. Pharmacol Rep. 2010;62:120–30.PubMed
Koh KK, Quon MJ, Lim S, et al. Effects of fenofibrate therapy on circulating adipocytokines in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214(1):144–7.PubMed
Perreault L, Bergman BC, Hunerdosse DM, et al. Fenofibrate administration does not affect muscle triglyceride concentration or insulin sensitivity in humans. Metab Clin Exp. 2011;60:1107–14.PubMedCentralPubMed
Lee SH, Cho KI, Kim JY, et al. Non-lipid effects of rosuvastatin-fenofibrate combination therapy in high-risk Asian patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis. 2012;221:169–75.PubMed
Avogaro A, Piliego T, Catapano A, et al. The effect of gemfibrozil on lipid profile and glucose metabolism in hypertriglyceridaemic well-controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. For the gemfibrozil study group. Actadiabetologica. 1999;36:27–33.
Whitelaw DC, Smith JM, Nattrass M. Effects of gemfibrozil on insulin resistance to fat metabolism in subjects with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridaemia. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002;4:187–94.PubMed
Jeng JR, Jeng CY, Sheu WH, et al. Gemfibrozil treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: improvement on fibrinolysis without change of insulin resistance. Am Heart J. 1997;134:565–71.PubMed
Jeng CY, Sheu WH, Fuh MM, et al. Gemfibrozil treatment of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia: effect on insulin-mediated glucose disposal and plasma insulin concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81:2550–3.PubMed
Asplund-Carlson A. Effects of gemfibrozil therapy on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in hypertriglyceridaemia. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1996;3:385–90.PubMed
Mussoni L, Mannucci L, Sirtori C, et al. Effects of gemfibrozil on insulin sensitivity and on haemostatic variables in hypertriglyceridemic patients. Atherosclerosis. 2000;148:397–406.PubMed
Dumont M, Mauriege P, Bergeron J, et al. Effect of a six month gemfibrozil treatment and dietary recommendations on the metabolic risk profile of visceral obese men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord J Int Assoc Study Obes. 2001;25:1136–43.
Raslova K, Nagyova A, Dobiasova M, et al. Effect of ciprofibrate on lipoprotien metabolism and oxidative stress parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. Actadiabetologica. 2000;37:131–4.
Paragh G, Seres I, Harangi M, et al. Ciprofibrate increases paraoxonase activity in patients with metabolic syndrome. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;61:694–701.PubMed
Brunmair B, Staniek K, Dörig J, et al. Activation of PPAR-delta in isolated rat skeletal muscle switches fuel preference from glucose to fatty acids. Diabetologia. 2006;49(11):2713–22.PubMed
Attia N, Durlach V, Roche D, et al. Post-prandial metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients before and after bezafibrate treatment. Eur J Clin Investig. 1997;27:55–63.
Onuma T, Tsutsui M, Boku A, et al. Effects of bezafibrate on abnormal lipoprotein metabolism and glucose-tolerance in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes-mellitus. Curr Ther Res Clin E. 1992;51:439–47.
Riccardi G, Genovese S, Saldalamacchia G, et al. Effects of bezafibrate on insulin-secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in hyperlipidemic patients with and without diabetes. Atherosclerosis. 1989;75:175–81.PubMed
Ogawa S, Takeuchi K, Sugimura K, et al. Bezafibrate reduces blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabol-Clin Exp. 2000;49:331–4.
Teramoto T, Shirai K, Daida H, et al. Effects of bezafibrate on lipid and glucose metabolism in dyslipidemic patients with diabetes: The j-benefit study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:29.PubMedCentralPubMed
Jones IR, Swai A, Taylor R, et al. Lowering of plasma glucose concentrations with bezafibrate in patients with moderately controlled niddm. Diabetes Care. 1990;13:855–63.PubMed
Winocour PH, Durrington PN, Bhatnagar D, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of bezafibrate on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fibrinogen in hyperlipidaemic type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med J Br Diabet Assoc. 1990;7:736–43.
Karhapaa P, Uusitupa M, Voutilainen E, et al. Effects of bezafibrate on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in subjects with combined hyperlipidemia. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992;52:620–6.PubMed
Almer LO, Kjellstrom T. The fibrinolytic system and coagulation during bezafibrate treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Atherosclerosis. 1986;61:81–5.PubMed
Krysiak R, Gdula-Dymek A, Okopien B. The effect of bezafibrate and omega-3 fatty acids on lymphocyte cytokine release and systemic inflammation in patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;67:1109–17.PubMedCentralPubMed
Tenenbaum A, Fisman EZ, Boyko V, et al. Attenuation of progression of insulin resistance in patients with coronary artery disease by bezafibrate. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:737–41.PubMed
Tenenbaum A, Motro M, Fisman EZ, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand bezafibrate for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2004;109:2197–202.PubMed
Tenenbaum A, Motro M, Fisman EZ, et al. Effect of bezafibrate on incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese patients. Eur Heart J. 2005;26:2032–8.PubMed
Tenenbaum A, Fisman EZ. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention? Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:140.PubMedCentralPubMed
Flory JH, Ellenberg S, Szapary PO, et al. Antidiabetic action of bezafibrate in a large observational database. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:547–51.PubMed
Hochholzer W, Berg DD, Giugliano RP. The facts behind niacin. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;5:227–40.PubMed
Rasouli N, Hale T, Kahn SE, et al. Effects of short-term experimental insulin resistance and family history of diabetes on pancreatic beta-cell function in nondiabetic individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(10):5825–33.PubMed
Chang AM, Smith MJ, Galecki AT, et al. Impaired beta-cell function in human aging: response to nicotinic acid-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(9):3303–9.PubMed
Kelly JJ, Lawson JA, Campbell LV, et al. Effects of nicotinic acid on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in healthy subjects. J Hum Hypertens. 2000;14:567–72.PubMed
Poynten AM, Gan SK, Kriketos AD, et al. Nicotinic acid-induced insulin resistance is related to increased circulating fatty acids and fat oxidation but not muscle lipid content. Metab Clin Exp. 2003;52:699–704.PubMed
The Coronary Drug Project Research Group. Clofibrate and niacin in coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1975;231(4):360–81.
Elam MB, Hunninghake DB, Davis KB, et al. Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the admit study: a randomized trial. Arterial disease multiple intervention trial. JAMA. 2000;284(10):1263–70.PubMed
Garg A, Grundy SM. Nicotinic acid as therapy for dyslipidemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 1990;264(6):723–6.PubMed
Grundy SM, Vega GL, McGovern ME, et al. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-daily niacin for the treatment of dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes: results of the assessment of diabetes control and evaluation of the efficacy of niaspan trial. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1568–76.PubMed
Chen F, Maccubbin D, Yan L, et al. Lipid-altering efficacy and safety profile of co-administered extended release niacin/laropiprant and simvastatin versus atorvastatin in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:225–31.PubMed
Maccubbin D, Bays HE, Olsson AG, et al. Lipid-modifying efficacy and tolerability of extended-release niacin/laropiprant in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia. Int J Clin Pract. 2008;62:1959–70.PubMed
Guyton JR, Fazio S, Adewale AJ, et al. Effect of extended-release niacin on new-onset diabetes among hyperlipidemic patients treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin in a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:857–60. Long-acting niacin increases the incidence of DM2 amongst patients with impaired fasting glucose, though blood glucose levels normalize after 64 weeks.
AIM-HIGH Investigators, Boden WE, Probstfield JL, et al. Niacin in patients with low hdl cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:2255–67.PubMed
HPS2-THRIVE Collaborative Group. Hps2-thrive randomized placebo-controlled trial in 25 673 high-risk patients of er niacin/laropiprant: trial design, pre-specified muscle and liver outcomes, and reasons for stopping study treatment. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:1279–91.
Berglund L, Brunzell JD, Goldberg AC, et al. Evaluation and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(9):2969–89.PubMed
Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 2006;189(1):19–30.PubMed
GlaxoSmithKline. LOVAZA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters) Capsules [Package Insert]. 2012.
Amarin Pharma Inc. VASCEPA [Package Insert]. Bedminster, NJ. 2012:1–11.
Friedberg CE, Janssen MJ, Heine RJ, et al. Fish oil and glycemic control in diabetes. A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(4):494–500.PubMed
Griffin MD, Sanders TAB, Davies IG, et al. Effects of altering the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acids on insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein size, and postprandial lipemia in men and postmenopausal women aged 45-70 y: the OPTILIP Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(6):1290–8.PubMed
Jacobson TA, Glickstein SB, Rowe JD, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids: a review. J Clin Lipidol. 2012;6(1):5–18.PubMed
Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Kastelein JJ, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in patients with very high triglyceride levels (from the Multi-center, plAcebo-controlled, Randomized, double-blINd, 12-week study with an open-label Extension [MARINE] trial). Am J Cardiol. 2011;108(5):682–90.PubMed
Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9177):447–55.
Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA. 2006;296(15):1885–99.PubMed
Aarsetoey H, Aarsetoey R, Lindner T, et al. Low levels of the omega-3 index are associated with sudden cardiac arrest and remain stable in survivors in the subacute phase. Lipids. 2011;46(2):151–61.PubMedCentralPubMed
ORIGIN Trial Investigators, Bosch J, Gerstein HC, et al. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(4):309–18.PubMed
Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, et al. Omega 3 fatty acids for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Chichester: Wiley; 2004 Oct 18; (4):CD003177.
Chapkin RS, Kim W, Lupton JR, et al. Dietary docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid: emerging mediators of inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fat Acids. 2009;81(2–3):187–91.
Kalupahana NS, Claycombe KJ, Moustaid-Moussa N. (n-3) Fatty acids alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance: mechanistic insights. Adv Nutr. 2011;2(4):304–16.PubMedCentralPubMed
James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1 Suppl):343S–8S.PubMed
Mohammadi E, Rafraf M, Farzadi L, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on serum adiponectin levels and some metabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2012;21(4):511–8.PubMed
Silva FM, de Almeida JC, Feoli AM. Effect of diet on adiponectin levels in blood. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(10):599–612.PubMed
Krebs JD, Browning LM, McLean NK, et al. Additive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic women. Int J Obes(Lond). 2006;30(10):1535–44.
Tishinsky JM, Dyck DJ, Robinson LE. Lifestyle factors increasing adiponectin synthesis and secretion. Vitam Horm. 2012;90:1–30.PubMed
Wu JHY, Cahill LE, Mozaffarian D. Effect of fish oil on circulating adiponectin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. May 23, 2013; jc.2012–3899.
Vaughan RA, Garcia-Smith R, Bisoffi M, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:142.PubMedCentralPubMed
Nettleton JA, Katz R. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(3):428–40.PubMed
Juárez-López C, Klünder-Klünder M, Madrigal-Azcárate A, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce insulin resistance and triglycerides in obese children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2013;14(5):377–83.PubMed
Ramel A, Martinéz A, Kiely M, et al. Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy-restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adults. Diabetologia. 2008;51(7):1261–8.PubMed
López-Alarcón M, Martínez-Coronado A, Velarde-Castro O, et al. Supplementation of n3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synergistically decreases insulin resistance with weight loss of obese prepubertal and pubertal children. Arch Med Res. 2011;42(6):502–8.PubMed
Couet C, Delarue J, Ritz P, et al. Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21(8):637–43.PubMed
Munro IA, Garg ML. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA does not promote weight loss when combined with a very-low-energy diet. Br J Nutr. 2011;108(08):1466–74.
Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, et al. Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(5):817–25.PubMed
Kunesová M, Braunerová R, Hlavatý P, et al. The influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and very low calorie diet during a short-term weight reducing regimen on weight loss and serum fatty acid composition in severely obese women. Physiol Res. 2006;55(1):63–72.PubMed
Munro IA, Garg ML. Prior supplementation with long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promotes weight loss in obese adults: a double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Food Funct. 2013;4(4):650–8.PubMed
Vasickova L, Stavek P, Suchanek P. Possible effect of DHA intake on body weight reduction and lipid metabolism in obese children. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2011;32 Suppl 2:64–7.PubMed
Ruzickova J, Rossmeisl M, Prazak T, et al. Omega-3 PUFA of marine origin limit diet-induced obesity in mice by reducing cellularity of adipose tissue. Lipids. 2004;39(12):1177–85.PubMed
Parra D, Ramel A, Bandarra N, et al. A diet rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids modulates satiety in overweight and obese volunteers during weight loss. Appetite. 2008;51(3):676–80.PubMed
Montori VM, Farmer A, Wollan PC, et al. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(9):1407–15.PubMed
Hartweg J, Perera R, Montori V, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD003205. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003205.pub2
Summers LKM, Fielding BA, Bradshaw HA, et al. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia. 2002;45(3):369–77.PubMed
Garaulet M, Pérez-Llamas F, Pérez-Ayala M, et al. Site-specific differences in the fatty acid composition of abdominal adipose tissue in an obese population from a Mediterranean area: relation with dietary fatty acids, plasma lipid profile, serum insulin, and central obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(5):585–91.PubMed
Ebrahimi M, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Rezaiean S, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity. Acta Cardiol. 2009;64(3):321–7. In patients with metabolic syndrome, 1 gram daily of omega-3 fatty acids for six months was associated with weight loss.
Zhong Y, Wang J, Gu P, Shao J, Lu B, Jiang S. Effect of ezetimibe on insulin secretion in db/db diabetic mice. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:420854.PubMedCentralPubMed
Kosoglou T, Statkevich P, Johnson-Levonas AO, et al. Ezetimibe: a review of its metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and drug interactions. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44:467–94.PubMed
Hildemann SK, Barho C, Karmann B, et al. Dual cholesterol inhibition with ezetimibe/simvastatin in pre-treated hypercholesterolaemic patients with coronary heart disease or diabetes mellitus: prospective observational cohort studies in clinical practice. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23(4):713–9.PubMed
Pearson TA, Denke MA, McBride PE, et al. A community-based, randomized trial of ezetimibe added to statin therapy to attain NCEP ATPIII goals for LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients: the ezetimibe add-on to statin for effectiveness (EASE) trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80:587–95.PubMed
Gaudiani LM, Lewin A, Meneghini L, et al. Efficacy and safety of ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin in thiazolidinedione-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005;7:88–97.PubMed
Knopp RH, Gitter H, Truitt T, et al. Effects of ezetimibe, a new cholesterol absorption inhibitor, on plasma lipids in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Eur Heart J. 2003;24:729–41.PubMed
Kastelein JJ, Akdim F, Stroes ES, et al. Simvastatin with or without ezetimibe in familial hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1431–43.PubMed
Howard BV, Roman MJ, Devereux RB, et al. Effect of lower targets for blood pressure and LDL cholesterol on atherosclerosis in diabetes: the SANDS randomized trial. JAMA. 2008;299(14):1678–89.PubMed
Baigent C, Landray MJ, Reith C, et al. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377:2181–92.PubMedCentralPubMed
Carabello BA. The SEAS Trial. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2010;12(2):122–4.PubMed
Merck. A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Study to Establish the Clinical Benefit and Safety of Vytorin (Ezetimibe/Simvastatin Tablet) vs Simvastatin Monotherapy in High-Risk Subjects Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndrome (IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial - IMPROVE IT) In: ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2000- [cited 2013 Nov 7]. Available from: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00202878
NLM Identifier: NCT00202878.
Umemoto T, Subramanian S, Ding Y, et al. Inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption decreases atherosclerosis but not adipose tissue inflammation. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:2380–9.PubMed
Tsunoda T, Nozue T, Yamada M, et al. Effects of ezetimibe on atherogenic lipoproteins and glucose metabolism in patients with diabetes and glucose intolerance. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013;100(1):46–52.PubMed
Yagi S, Akaike M, Aihara K, et al. Ezetimibe ameliorates metabolic disorders and microalbuminuria in patients with hypercholesterolemia. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010;17:173–80.PubMed
Nakamura T, Sato E, Amaha M, et al. Ezetimibe reduces urinary albumin excretion in hypercholesterolaemic type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria. J Int Med Res. 2012;40(2):798–803.PubMed
Chan DC, Watts GF, Gan SK, et al. Effect of ezetimibe on hepatic fat, inflammatory markers, and adiponectin B-100 kinetics in insulin-resistant obese subjects on a weight loss diet. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1134–9.PubMed
Tamura Y, Murayama T, Minami M, et al. Ezetimibe ameliorates early diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19(7):608–18.PubMed
Takeuchi A, Sano N, Takikawa H. Inhibition of ileal bile acid absorption by colestimide. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;18:548–53.PubMed
Insull Jr W. Clinical utility of bile acid sequestrants in the treatment of dyslipidemia: a scientific review. South Med J. 2006;99(3):257–73.PubMed
Lipids research clinics program. The lipid research clinics coronary primary prevention trial results. JAMA 1984;251(3);351–64.
Bays HE, Goldberg RB. The ‘forgotten’ bile acid sequestrants: is now a good time to remember? Am J Therapeutics. 2007;14(6):567–80.
Lefebvre P, Cariou B, Lien F, et al. Role of bile acids and bile acid receptors in metabolic regulation. Physiol Rev. 2009;89:147–91.PubMed
Garg A, Grundy SM. Cholestyramine therapy for dyslipidemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:416–22.PubMed
Yamakawa T, Takano T, Utsunomiya H, et al. Effect of colestimide therapy for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes with hypercholesterolemia. Endocrin J. 2007;54:53–8.
Bays HE, Goldberg RB, Truitt KE, et al. Colesevelam hydrochloride therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin. Arch Int Med. 2008;168:1975–83.
Fonseca VA, Rosenstock J, Wang AC, et al. Colesevelam HCL improves glycemic control and reduces LDL cholesterol in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on sulfonylurea-based therapy. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(8):1479–84.PubMed
Zieve FJ, Kalin MF, Schwartz SL, et al. Results of the glucose-lowering effect of WelChol study GLOWS: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluating the effect of colesevelam hydrochloride on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Clin Ther. 2007;29:74–83.PubMed
Goldberg RB, Fonseca VA, Truitt KE, et al. Efficacy and safety of colesevelam in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and inadequate glycemic control receiving insulin-based therapy. Arch Int Med. 2008;168(14):1531–40.
Sugimoto-Kawabata K, Shimada H, Sakai K, et al. Colestilan decreases weight gain by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and fecal lipid excretion. J Lipid Res. 2013;54(5):1255–64.PubMed
Koike K, Murakami K, Nozaki N, et al. Colestilan, a new bile acid-sequestering resin, reduces bodyweight in postmenopausal women who have dieted unsuccessfully. Drugs R D. 2005;6(5):273–9.PubMed
Handelsman Y. Role of bile acid sequestrants in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(2):S244–50.PubMed
Sharma S, Sowjanya A, Kumari M, et al. Biochemical mechanism of insulin sensitization, lipid modulation and anti-atherogenic potential of PPAR alpha/gamma dual agonist: ragaglitazar. Life Sci. 2006;80(3):235–44.PubMed
Cavender MA, Lincoff AM. Therapeutic potential of aleglitazar, a new dual PPAR-α/γ agonist: implications for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2010;10(4):209–16.PubMed
Ling H, Burns TL, Hilleman DE. Novel strategies for managing dyslipidemia: treatment beyond statins. Postgrad Med. 2012;124(6):43–54.PubMed
Kendall DM, Rubin CJ, Mohideen P, et al. Improvement of glycemic control, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol levels with muraglitazar, a dual (alpha/gamma) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activator, in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy: A double-blind, randomized, pioglitazone-comparative study. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(5):1016–23.PubMed
Nissen SE, Wolski K, Topol EJ. Effect of muraglitazar on death and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2005;294(20):2581–6.PubMed
Wilding JPH, Gause-Nilsson I, Persson A. Tesaglitazar, as add-on therapy to sulphonylurea, dose-dependently improves glucose and lipid abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2007;4(3):194–203.PubMed
Bays H, McElhattan J, Bryzinski BS. A double-blind, randomised trial of tesaglitazar versus pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2007;4(3):181–93.PubMed
Göke B, Gause-Nilsson I, Persson A. The effects of tesaglitazar as add-on treatment to metformin in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2007;4(3):204–13.PubMed
Ratner RE, Parikh S, Tou C. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of tesaglitazar when added to the therapeutic regimen of poorly controlled insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2007;4(3):214–21.PubMed
Wilding JPH. PPAR agonists for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14(11):973–82.PubMed
Roche halts investigation of aleglitazar following regular safety review of phase III trial [press release]. 10 July 2013. http://www.roche.com/media/media_releases/med-cor-2013-07-10.htm
, Accessed 7 Nov 2013.
Nainggolan L. All trials of diabetes drug aleglitizar are abandoned. Medscape
. 10 July 2010. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/807585
, Accessed Nov 7 2013.
Saydah SH, Fradkin J, Cowie CC. Poor control of risk factors for vascular disease among adults with previously diagnosed diabetes. JAMA. 2004;291(3):335–42.PubMed