From Bariatric to Metabolic Surgery: Definition of a New Discipline and Implications for Clinical Practice
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- Rubino, F. Curr Atheroscler Rep (2013) 15: 369. doi:10.1007/s11883-013-0369-x
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Bariatric surgery indicates a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) surgical procedures originally designed to induce weight reduction in morbidly obese patients. Benefits of bariatric surgery, however, extend well beyond weight loss and include dramatic improvement of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and reduction of overall mortality. Furthermore, studies in rodents and humans show that the anti-diabetes effect of certain bariatric procedures results from a variety of neuroendocrine and metabolic mechanisms secondary to changes in GI anatomy. The recognition that benefits and mechanisms of GI operations are not limited to weight reduction provided a rationale for the emergence of metabolic surgery intended as a surgical approach primarily aimed to the treatment of diabetes and metabolic disease. Consistent with the goals of improving glycemic and metabolic control, in contrast to mere weight loss, metabolic surgery implies the development of a new model of care distinct from traditional bariatric surgery. This paper discusses the definition of metabolic surgery and its clinical practice.