, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 474-483
Date: 06 Oct 2011

Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Versus Docosahexaenoic Acid on Serum Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

Omega-3 fatty acid supplements containing both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to reduce triglycerides but also increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Whether EPA or DHA given as monotherapy has differential effects on serum lipoproteins has not been systematically evaluated. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of monotherapy with EPA (n = 10), DHA (n = 17), or EPA versus DHA (n = 6). Compared with placebo, DHA raised LDL 7.23 mg/dL (95% CI, 3.98–10.5) whereas EPA non-significantly reduced LDL. In direct comparison studies, DHA raised LDL 4.63 mg/dL (95% CI, 2.15–7.10) more than EPA. Both EPA and DHA reduced triglycerides, with a greater reduction by DHA in direct comparison studies. DHA also raised high-density lipoprotein (4.49 mg/dL; 95% CI, 3.50–5.48) compared with placebo, whereas EPA did not. Although EPA and DHA both reduce triglycerides, they have divergent effects on LDL and high-density lipoprotein. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms and significance of these differences.

An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11883-011-0223-y