Dyslipidemia in special populations: Asian Indians, African Americans, and Hispanics
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and certain population groups, such as South Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics, carry a disproportionately larger burden of CVD manifested as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension. Persons of these special populations experience approximately two- to threefold greater morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of risk factors, including dyslipidemia, overweight, and diabetes, is not only higher in these groups, but is also rising. The reasons for such disparity appear to be multifactorial and influenced by such factors as lifestyle, diet, culture, genetics, and suboptimal healthcare. Furthermore, because these minority populations are not significantly represented in major clinical trials, evidence-based management strategies for treatment and prevention of CVD are seriously lacking. Lately, however, several randomized trials of therapy for dyslipidemia to reduce cardiovascular events among these ethnic groups have been undertaken. Preliminary data suggest the need for stricter goals and increasingly aggressive therapy for these special populations, including administrative and educational interventions.
- American Heart Association: Heart disease and stroke statistics—2005 update. http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1105390918119HDSStats2005Update.pdf. Accessed October 15, 2005.
- Gupta R, Deedwania PC, Gupta A, et al.: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an Indian urban population. Int J Cardiol 2004, 97:257–261. CrossRef
- Kraus JF, Borhani NO, Frant CE: Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 1980, 111:407–414.
- McKeigue PM, Miller GJ, Marmot MG: Coronary heart disease in south Asians overseas: a review. J Clin Epidemiol 1989, 42:597–609. CrossRef
- Tamir A, Cachola S: Hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors. In Confronting Critical Health Issues of Asian and Pacific Islander Americans. Edited by Zane NW, Takeuchi DT, Young KN. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1994:209–246.
- Enas EA, Garg A, Davidson MA, et al.: Coronary heart disease and its risk factors in first-generation immigrant Asian Indians to the United States of America (CADI Study). Indian Heart J 1996, 48:343–353.
- Enas EA, Yusuf S, Mehta J: Meeting of the IWG on Coronary Artery Disease in South Asians. Indian Heart Journal 1996, 48:727–732.
- Misra A, Pandey RM, Devi JR, et al.: High prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia in urban slum population in northern India. Int J Obes 2001, 25:1722–1729. CrossRef
- Gupta R, Gupta VP: Urban-rural differences in coronary risk factors do not fully explain greater urban coronary heart disease prevalence. J Assoc Physicians India 1997, 45:683–686.
- Chadha SL, Gopinath N, Kkathyal I: Dietary profile of adults in an urban and a rural community. Indian J Med Res 1995, 101:258–267.
- Reddy KS, Shah B, Varghese C, Ramadoss A: Responding to the threat of chronic diseases in India. The Lancet Early Online Publication 2005. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67343-6.
- Kulkarni KR, Markovitz JH, Nanda NC, Segrest JP: Increased prevalence of smaller and denser LDL particles in Asian Indians. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999, 19:2749–2755.
- Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al.: Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004, 364:937–952. CrossRef
- Reddy KS: Cardiovascular disease in India. World Health Stat Q 1993, 46:101–107.
- Chandalia M, Deedwania PC: Coronary heart disease and risk factors in Asian Indians. Adv Exp Med Biol 2001, 498:27–34.
- Bhatnagar D, Anand IS, Durrington PN, et al.: Coronary risk factors in people from the Indian subcontinent living in west London and their siblings in India. Lancet 1995, 345:405–409. CrossRef
- Misra A, Luthra K, Vikram NK: Dyslipidemia in Asian Indians: determinants and significance. J Assoc Physicians India 2004, 52:137–142.
- Patel MG: Prescribing of lipid lowering drugs to South Asian patients: ecological study. BMJ 2002, 325:25–26. CrossRef
- Singh VN: Commentary on “Race and Gender in Coronary Heart Disease.” ACP J Club Nov–Dec: 1993 (Ann Int Med 119: suppl 3). Commentary on: Keil JE, Sutherland SE, Knapp RG, et al: Mortality rates and risk factors for coronary disease in black as compared with white men and women. N Engl J Med 1993, 329:73–78. CrossRef
- Gillum RF: The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in Black Americans. N Engl J Med 1996, 335:1597–1599. CrossRef
- Ferdinand KC: Coronary heart disease and lipid-modifying treatment in African American patients. Am Heart J 2004, 147:774–782. CrossRef
- Pleis JR, Coles R: Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 1998. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Vital Health Stat 2002, 10:209.
- Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–94). CDC/NCHS Web site. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm. Accessed October 15, 2005.
- The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs usual care: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT). JAMA 2002, 288:2998–3007. CrossRef
- Ferdinand KC: Presented at: American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2004; November 7–10, 2004. New Orleans, LA.
- Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults: Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001, 285:2486–2497. CrossRef
- American Heart Association: Hispanics and cardiovascular disease. http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1059108199897FS05HIS3REV7-03.pdf. Accessed October 15, 2005.
- National Women’s Health Information Center: Frequently asked questions about health problems in Hispanic American/Latino women. Washington, DC: US DHHS, Office on Women’s Health. http://www.4woman.gov/faq/latina.htm. Accessed on October 15, 2005.
- Kaiser Permanente: A Provider’s Handbook on Culturally Competent Care: Latino Population. Oakland, CA: Kaiser Permanente National Diversity Council; 2001.
- Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR (eds): Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies; 2003.
- Perez-Stable E: Cardiovascular disease. In Latino Health in the US: A Growing Challenge. Edited by Molina CW, Molina-Aguirre M. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1994:247–278.
- Deedwania PC: Metabolic syndrome and vascular disease: is nature or nurture leading the new epidemic of cardiovascular disease? Circulation 2004, 109:2–4. CrossRef
- Miller GJ, Beckles GL, Maude GH, et al.: Ethnicity and other characteristics predictive of coronary heart disease in a developing community: principal results of the St. James Survey, Trinidad. Int J Epidemiol 1989, 18:808–817. CrossRef
- Dyslipidemia in special populations: Asian Indians, African Americans, and Hispanics
Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Volume 8, Issue 1 , pp 32-40
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Current Medicine Group
- Additional Links