Gender differences in lipoprotein metabolism and dietary response: Basis in hormonal differences and implications for cardiovascular disease
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The transport of fat in the blood stream is approximately twice as fast in women as men. Disease states such as obesity and diabetes are associated with greater lipoprotein abnormalities in women compared with men. A greater increment in cardiovascular disease risk in women is linked to these abnormalities. A greater change in triglyceride level and a lesser change in low-density lipoprotein are observed in women than men with high-carbohydrate or high-fat feeding. Most consistent are greater changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), HDL2, and apolipoprotein A-I levels in women compared with men with high-carbohydrate or high-fat feeding. Dietary fat restriction in women appears to have a less beneficial lipoprotein effect than in men. Dietary fat restriction for heart disease prevention may be less ideal in women than in men.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Knopp RH: Drug treatment of lipid disorders. N Engl J Med 1999, 341:498–511. CrossRef
- Knopp R, Zhu XD, Lau J, Walden C: Sex hormones and lipid interactions: implications for cardiovascular disease in women. Endocrinologist 1994, 4:286–301. CrossRef
- Mendelsohn ME, Karas RH: Molecular and cellular basis of cardiovascular gender differences. Science 2005, 308:1583–1587. CrossRef
- Seed M, Knopp RH: Estrogens, lipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk factors: an update following the randomized placebo-controlled trials of hormone-replacement therapy. Curr Opin Lipidol 2004, 15:459–467. CrossRef
- Knopp R, Bonet B, Zhu XD: Lipid metabolism in pregnancy. In Principles of Perinatal-Neonatal Metabolism, edn 2. Edited by Cowett R. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1998:221–258.
- Merimee TJ, Fineberg SE: Homeostasis during fasting. II. Hormone substrate differences between men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1973, 37:698–702. CrossRef
- Kushlan MC, Gollan JL, Ma WL, Ockner RK: Sex differences in hepatic uptake of long chain fatty acids in single-pass perfused rat liver. J Lipid Res 1981, 22:431–436.
- Mittendorfer B, Patterson BW, Klein S: Effect of sex and obesity on basal VLDL-triacylglycerol kinetics. Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 77:573–579.
- Tollin C, Ericsson M, Johnson O, Backman C: Clearance of triglycerides from the circulation and its relationship to serum lipoproteins: influence of age and sex. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1985, 45:679–684. CrossRef
- Maehira F, Miyagi I, Eguchi Y: Sex- and age-related variations in the in vitro heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase from mononuclear leukocytes in blood. Biochim Biophys Acta 1990, 1042:344–351.
- Ma PT, Yamamoto T, Goldstein JL, Brown MS: Increased mRNA for low density lipoprotein receptor in livers of rabbits treated with 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1986, 83:792–796. CrossRef
- Tilly-Kiesi M, Lichtenstein AH, Joven J, et al.: Impact of gender on the metabolism of apolipoprotein A-I in HDL subclasses LpAI and LpAI:AII in older subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997, 17:3513–3518.
- Applebaum-Bowden D, McLean P, Steinmetz A, et al.: Lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, and lipolytic enzyme changes following estrogen administration in postmenopausal women. J Lipid Res 1989, 30:1895–1906.
- Zambon A, Hokanson JE, Brown BG, Brunzell JD: Evidence for a new pathophysiological mechanism for coronary artery disease regression: hepatic lipase-mediated changes in LDL density. Circulation 1999, 99:1959–1964.
- Walden CE, Knopp RH, Wahl PW, et al.: Sex differences in the effect of diabetes mellitus on lipoprotein triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. N Engl J Med 1984, 311:953–959. CrossRef
- Knopp R, Broyles F, Bonet B, Walden C: Exaggerated lipoprotein abnormalities in diabetic women compared to diabetic men: possible significance for arteriosclerosis. In Cardiovascular Health and Disease in Women. Edited by Wenger NK, Speroff L, Packard B. Greenwich, CT: LeJacq Communications; 1993:131–138.
- Siegel RD, Cupples A, Schaefer EJ, Wilson PW: Lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and low-density lipoprotein size among diabetics in the Framingham offspring study. Metabolism 1996, 45:1267–1272. CrossRef
- Aikawa K, Retzlaff B, Fish B, et al.: Dyslipidemia of insulin resistance and obesity: gender differences. Circulation 2002, 106(suppl II):II-75.
- Barrett-Connor E, Giardina EG, Gitt AK, et al.: Women and heart disease: the role of diabetes and hyperglycemia. Arch Intern Med 2004, 164:934–942. CrossRef
- Gordon DJ, Probstfield JL, Garrison RJ, et al.: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Four prospective American studies. Circulation 1989, 79:8–15.
- Reardon MF, Nestel PJ, Craig IH, Harper RW: Lipoprotein predictors of the severity of coronary artery disease in men and women. Circulation 1985, 71:881–888.
- Walden CE, Retzlaff BM, Buck BL, et al.: Lipoprotein lipid response to the National Cholesterol Education Program step II diet by hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic women and men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997, 17:375–382.
- Walden CE, Retzlaff BM, Buck BL, et al.: Differential effect of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step II diet on HDL cholesterol, its subfractions, and apoprotein A-I levels in hypercholesterolemic women and men after 1 year: the beFIT Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000, 20:1580–1587.
- Li Z, Otvos JD, Lamon-Fava S, et al.: Men and women differ in lipoprotein response to dietary saturated fat and cholesterol restriction. J Nutr 2003, 133:3428–3433.
- Clifton PM, Nestel PJ: Influence of gender, body mass index, and age on response of plasma lipids to dietary fat plus cholesterol. Arterioscler Thromb 1992, 12:955–962.
- Ahrens EH Jr, Hirsch J, Oette K, et al.: Carbohydrate-induced and fat-induced lipemia. Trans Med Soc Lond 1961, 74:134–146.
- Antonis A, Bersohn I: Serum-triglyceride levels in South African Europeans and Bantu and in ischaemic heart-disease. Lancet 1960, 1:998–1002. CrossRef
- Cahlin E, Jonsson J, Persson B, et al.: Sucrose feeding in man. Effects of substrate incorporation into hepatic triglycerides and phosphoglycerides in vitro and on removal of intravenous fat in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1973, 32:21–33.
- Ahrens EH Jr: Sterol balance in hyperlipidemic patients after dietary exchange of carbohydrate for fat. J Lipid Res 1976, 17:97–106.
- Schonfeld G, Weidman SW, Witztum JL, Bowen RM: Alterations in levels and interrelations of plasma apolipoproteins induced by diet. Metabolism 1976, 25:261–275. CrossRef
- Mensink RP, Katan MB: Effect of monounsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on high-density lipoproteins in healthy men and women. Lancet 1987, 1:122–125. CrossRef
- Mensink RP, Katan MB: Effect of a diet enriched with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids on levels of low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy women and men. N Engl J Med 1989, 321:436–441. CrossRef
- Geil PB, Anderson JW, Gustafson NJ: Women and men with hypercholesterolemia respond similarly to an American Heart Association step 1 diet. J Am Diet Assoc 1995, 95:436–441. CrossRef
- Schaefer EJ, Lamon-Fava S, Ausman LM, et al.: Individual variability in lipoprotein cholesterol response to National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1997, 65:823–830.
- Knopp RH, Retzlaff B, Fish B, et al.: Effects of insulin resistance and obesity on lipoproteins and sensitivity to egg feeding. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003, 23:1437–1443. CrossRef
- Ginsberg HN, Karmally W, Siddiqui M, et al.: Increases in dietary cholesterol are associated with modest increases in both LDL and HDL cholesterol in healthy young women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995, 15:169–178.
- Ferro-Luzzi A, Strazzullo P, Scaccini C, et al.: Changing the Mediterranean diet: effects on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 1984, 40:1027–1037.
- Cobb M, Greenspan J, Timmons M, Teitelbaum H: Gender differences in lipoprotein responses to diet. Ann Nutr Metab 1993, 37:225–236. CrossRef
- Wood PD, Stefanick ML, Williams PT, Haskell WL: The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. N Engl J Med 1991, 325:461–466. CrossRef
- Stefanick ML, Mackey S, Sheehan M, et al.: Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1998, 339:12–20. CrossRef
- Taskinen MR, Kuusi T: High density lipoproteins in postprandial lipemia. Relation to sex and lipoprotein lipase activity. Atherosclerosis 1986, 59:121–130. CrossRef
- Ohta T, Ikeda Y, Nakamura R, Matsuda I: Lipoprotein-containing apolipoprotein A-I: sex-related quantitative and qualitative changes in this lipoprotein subspecies after ingestion of fat. Am J Clin Nutr 1992, 56:404–409.
- Cheung MC, Knopp RH, Retzlaff B, et al.: Association of plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity with IDL and buoyant LDL: impact of gender and adiposity. Biochim Biophys Acta 2002, 1587:53–59.
- Simonen P, Gylling H, Howard AN, Miettinen TA: Introducing a new component of the metabolic syndrome: low cholesterol absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 72:82–88.
- Robbesyn F, Auge N, Vindis C, et al.: High-density lipoproteins prevent the oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced endothelial growth factor receptor activation and subsequent matrix metalloproteinase-2 upregulation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005, 25:1206–1212. CrossRef
- Getz GS, Reardon CA: Paraoxonase, a cardioprotective enzyme: continuing issues. Curr Opin Lipidol 2004, 15:261–267. CrossRef
About this Article
- Gender differences in lipoprotein metabolism and dietary response: Basis in hormonal differences and implications for cardiovascular disease
Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Volume 7, Issue 6 , pp 472-479
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Current Medicine Group
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Northwest Lipid Research Clinic, University of Washington, 325 9th Avenue, Box 359720, 98104, Seattle, WA, USA