Diet and low-density lipoprotein particle size
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are being increasingly recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This paper provides an overview of how different diets and macronutrients modulate the LDL size phenotype. Data reviewed indicated that several components of the LDL size phenotype should be measured concurrently in order to fully appreciate the impact of diet on this complex trait. Data also suggested that numerous dietary elements have a significant impact on several characteristics of the LDL size phenotype, thus providing further evidence to the concept that specific dietary modifications can beneficially alter cardiovascular disease risk beyond their known and demonstrated effects on plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations.
- Randomized trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994, 344:1383–1389.
- Krauss RM, Burke DJ: Identification of multiple subclasses of plasma low density lipoproteins in normal humans. J Lipid Res 1982, 23:97–104.
- Lamarche B, Lemieux I, Despres JP: The small, dense LDL phenotype and the risk of coronary heart disease: epidemiology, patho-physiology and therapeutic aspects. Diabetes Metab 1999, 25:199–211.
- St-Pierre AC, Ruel IL, Cantin B, et al.: Comparison of various electrophoretic characteristics of LDL particles and their relationship to the risk of ischemic heart disease. Circulation 2001, 104:2295–2299.
- Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report. Circulation 2002, 106:3143.
- Krauss RM: Dietary and genetic effects on low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity. Annu Rev Nutr 2001, 21:283–295. CrossRef
- Austin MA, King MC, Vranizan KM, et al.: Inheritance of low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns: results of complex segregation analysis. Am J Hum Genet 1988, 43:838–846.
- Austin MA, King MC, Vranizan KM, Krauss RM: Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype: a proposed genetic marker for coronary heart disease risk. Circulation 1990, 82:495–506.
- Albers JJ, Chen CH, Aladjem F: Human serum lipoproteins. Evidence for three classes of lipoproteins in S fO-2. Biochemistry 1972, 11:57–63. CrossRef
- Berneis KK, Krauss RM: Metabolic origins and clinical significance of LDL heterogeneity. J Lipid Res 2002, 43:1363–1379. CrossRef
- Reaven G: Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002, 106:286–288. CrossRef
- Austin MA: Triglyceride, small, dense low-density lipoprotein, and the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000, 2:200–207.
- Mykkanen L, Kuusisto J, Haffner SM, et al.: LDL size and risk of coronary heart disease in elderly men and women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999, 19:2742–2748.
- Campos H, Moye LA, Glasser SP, et al.: Low-density lipoprotein size, pravastatin treatment, and coronary events. JAMA 2001, 286:1468–1474. CrossRef
- Krauss RM, Dreon DM: Low-density-lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 1995, 62:478S-487S.
- Purnell JQ, Brunzell JD: The central role of dietary fat, not carbohydrate, in the insulin resistance syndrome. Curr Opin Lipidol 1997, 8:17–22. CrossRef
- Archer WR, Lamarche B, St Pierre AC, et al.: High carbohydrate and high monounsaturated fatty acid diets similarly affect LDL electrophoretic characteristics in men who are losing weight. J Nutr 2003, 133:3124–3129.
- Beard CM, Barnard RJ, Robbins DC, et al.: Effects of diet and exercise on qualitative and quantitative measures of LDL and its susceptibility to oxidation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996, 16:201–207.
- Williams PT, Krauss RM, Vranizan KM, Wood PD: Changes in lipoprotein subfractions during diet-induced and exercise-induced weight loss in moderately overweight men. Circulation 1990, 81:1293–1304.
- Purnell JQ, Kahn SE, Albers JJ, et al.: Effect of weight loss with reduction of intra-abdominal fat on lipid metabolism in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000, 85:977–982. CrossRef
- Sharman MJ, Kraemer WJ, Love DM, et al.: A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men. J Nutr 2002, 132:1879–1885.
- Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS: Very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets affect fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia differently in overweight men. J Nutr 2004, 134:880–885.
- Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, et al.: An isoenergetic very low carbohydrate diet improves serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and postprandial pipemic responses compared with a low fat diet in normal weight, normolipidemic women. J Nutr 2003, 133:2756–2761.
- Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, et al.: Comparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight women. J Am Coll Nutr 2004, 23:177–184.
- Davy BM, Davy KP, Ho RC, et al.: High-fiber oat cereal compared with wheat cereal consumption favorably alters LDL-cholesterol subclass and particle numbers in middle-aged and older men. Am J Clin Nutr 2002, 76:351–358.
- Luscombe ND, Noakes M, Clifton PM: Diets high and low in glycemic index versus high monounsaturated fat diets: effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999, 53:473–478. CrossRef
- Dumesnil JG, Turgeon J, Tremblay A, et al.: Effect of low-glycaemic index-low-fat-high protein diet on the atherogenic metabolic risk profile of abdominally obese men. Br J Nutr 2001, 86:557–568.
- Yu-Poth S, Zhao G, Etherton T, et al.: Effects of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Step I and Step II dietary intervention programs on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 69:632–646.
- Clarke R, Frost C, Collins R, et al.: Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ 1997, 314:112–117.
- Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Campos H, et al.: Change in dietary saturated fat intake is correlated with change in mass of large low-density-lipoprotein particles in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1998, 67:828–836.
- Kratz M, Gülbahçe E, von Eckardstein A, et al..: Dietary mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids similarly affect LDL size in healthy men and women. J Nutr 2002, 132:715–718.
- Dreon DM, Vranizan KM, Krauss RM, et al.: The effects of polyunsaturated fat vs monounsaturated fat on plasma lipoproteins. JAMA 1990, 263:2462–2466. CrossRef
- Schwab US, Vogel S, Lammi-Keefe CJ, et al.: Varying dietary fat type of reduced-fat diets has little effect on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. J Nutr 1998, 128:1703–1709.
- Pedersen A, Baumstark MW, Marckmann P, et al.: An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets. J Lipid Res 2000, 41:1901–1911.
- Gill JM, Brown JC, Caslake MJ, et al.: Effects of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoprotein concentrations, compositions, and subfraction distributions and on VLDL apolipoprotein B kinetics: dose-dependent effects on LDL. Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78:47–56.
- Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Schaefer EJ: Effects of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1999, 340:1933–1940. CrossRef
- Mauger JF, Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, et al.: Effect of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on LDL particle size. Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78:370–375.
- Cuchel M, Schwab US, Jones PJ, et al.: Impact of hydrogenated fat consumption on endogenous cholesterol synthesis and susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals. Metabolism 1996, 45:241–247. CrossRef
- Zock PL, Mensink RP: Dietary trans-fatty acids and serum lipoproteins in humans. Curr Opin Lipidol 1996, 7:34–37. CrossRef
- Khosla P, Hayes KC: Dietary trans-monounsaturated fatty acids negatively impact plasma lipids in humans: critical review of the evidence. J Am Coll Nutr 1996, 15:325–339.
- Judd JT, Clevidence BA, Muesing RA, et al.: Dietary trans fatty acids: effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of healthy men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 1994, 59:861–868.
- Abbey M, Nestel PJ: Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity is increased when trans-elaidic acid is substituted for cis-oleic acid in the diet. Atherosclerosis 1994, 106:99–107. CrossRef
- Van Tol A, Zock PL, Van Gent T, et al.: Dietary trans fatty acids increase serum cholesterylester transfer protein activity in man. Atherosclerosis 1995, 115:129–134. CrossRef
- Matthan NR, Welty FK, Barrett PH, et al.: Dietary hydrogenated fat increases high-density lipoprotein apoA-I catabolism and decreases low-density lipoprotein apoB-100 catabolism in hypercholesterolemic women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004, 24:1092–1097. CrossRef
- Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ: Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003, 23:e20-e30. CrossRef
- Schaefer EJ, Lichtenstein AH, Lamon-Fava S, et al.: Effects of National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 diets relatively high or relatively low in fish-derived fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1996, 63:234–241.
- Patti L, Maffettone A, Iovine C, et al.: Long-term effects of fish oil on lipoprotein subfractions and low density lipoprotein size in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Atherosclerosis 1999, 146:361–367. CrossRef
- Sorensen NS, Marckmann P, Hoy CE, et al.: Effect of fish-oil-enriched margarine on plasma lipids, low-density-lipoprotein particle composition, size, and susceptibility to oxidation. Am J Clin Nutr 1998, 68:235–241.
- Thomas TR, Smith BK, Donahue OM, et al.: Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and exercise on low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein subfractions. Metabolism 2004, 53:749–754. CrossRef
- Suzukawa M, Abbey M, Howe PR, Nestel PJ: Effects of fish oil fatty acids on low density lipoprotein size, oxidizability, and uptake by macrophages. J Lipid Res 1995, 36:473–484.
- Tinker LF, Parks EJ, Behr SR, et al.: (n-3) fatty acid supplementation in moderately hypertriglyceridemic adults changes postprandial lipid and apolipoprotein B responses to a standardized test meal. J Nutr 1999, 129:1126–1134.
- Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, et al.: Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differencial effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 71:1085–1094.
- Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, et al.: Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid increases LDL particle size in treated hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2003, 26:253. CrossRef
- Matvienko OA, Lewis DS, Swanson M, et al.: A single daily dose of soybean phytosterols in ground beef decreases serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in young, mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2002, 76:57–64.
- Charest A, Desroches S, Vanstone CA, et al.: Unesterified plant sterols and stanols do not affect LDL electrophoretic characteristics in hypercholesterolemic subjects. J Nutr 2004, 134:592–595.
- Vanstone CA, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Parsons WE, Jones PJ: Unesterified plant sterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations equivalently in hypercholesterolemic persons. Am J Clin Nutr 2002, 76:1272–1278.
- Merz-Demlow BE, Duncan AM, Wangen KE, et al.: Soy isoflavones improve plasma lipids in normocholesterolemic, premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 71:1462–1469.
- Wangen KE, Duncan AM, Xu X, Kurser MS: Soy isoflavones improve plasma lipids in normocholesterolemic and mildly hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2001, 73:225–231.
- Desroches S, Mauger JF, Ausman LM, et al.: Soy protein favorably affects LDL size independently of isoflavones in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr 2004, 134:574–579.
- Demonty I, Deshaies Y, Lamarche B, Jacques H: Interaction between dietary protein and fat in triglyceride metabolism in the rat: effects of soy protein and menhaden oil. Lipids 2002, 37:693–699. CrossRef
- Baum JA, Teng H, Erdman JW, et al.: Long term intake of soy protein improves blood lipid profiles and increases mononuclear cell low-density-lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA in hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998, 68:545–551.
- Higashi K, Abata S, Iwamoto N, et al.: Effects of soy protein on levels of remnant-like particles cholesterol and vitamin E in healthy men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2001, 47:283–288.
- Almario RU, Vonghavaravat V, Wong R, Kasim-Karakas SE: Effects of walnut consumption on plasma fatty acids and lipoproteins in combined hyperlipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr 2001, 74:72–79.
- St-Onge MP, Lamarche B, Mauger JF, Jones PJ: Consumption of a functional oil rich in phytosterols and medium-chain triglyceride oil improves plasma lipid profiles in men. J Nutr 2003, 133:1815–1820.
- Lamarche B, Desroches S, Jenkins DJ, et al.: Combined effects of a dietary portfolio of plant sterols, vegetable proteins, viscous fibers and almonds on LDL particle size. Br J Nutr 2004, In press.
- Bosse Y, Perusse L, Vohl MC: Genetics of LDL particle heterogeneity: from genetic epidemiology to DNA-based variations. J Lipid Res 2004, 45:1008–1026. CrossRef
- Diet and low-density lipoprotein particle size
Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Volume 6, Issue 6 , pp 453-460
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Current Medicine Group
- Additional Links