Dietary fat and postprandial lipids
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- Sanders, T.A.B. Curr Atheroscler Rep (2003) 5: 445. doi:10.1007/s11883-003-0034-x
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Impaired clearance of chylomicron remnants is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. An intake of 40 to 50 g of fat in a meal results in significant lipemia in healthy adults, with consecutive fat-containing meals enhancing the lipemia. This would suggest that limiting fat intake to approximately 30 g on each eating occasion would minimize postprandial lipemia. Sedentary behavior and obesity independently impair the postprandial metabolism of lipids. Postprandial lipemia causes endothelial dysfunction and results in a transient increase in factor VII activated (FVIIa) concentration. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 activity is associated with fasting plasma triacylglycerol concentration, but is not influenced by postprandial lipemia. Trans-18:1 acid appears to increase cholesterol ester transfer activity acutely compared with oleate. Randomized stearic acid-rich fats result in less postprandial lipemia and a lower postprandial increase in FVIIa, whereas unrandomized cocoa butter results in similar postprandial lipemia and increases in FVIIa compared with oleate. A background diet containing in excess of 3 g/d of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids decreases postprandial lipemia by stimulating lipoprotein lipase expression and decreasing very low-density lipoprotein synthesis, but a diet enriched in α-linolenic acid (up to 9.5 g/d) does not show these effects. Future research on diet and postprandial lipids needs to exploit newly gained knowledge on the regulation of adipocyte metabolism by adipokines and nuclear hormone receptors, particularly with regard to fat patterning and reverse cholesterol transport.