Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 580–586

Lupus Nephritis: Review of the Literature

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DOI: 10.1007/s11882-013-0394-4

Cite this article as:
Zubair, A. & Frieri, M. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep (2013) 13: 580. doi:10.1007/s11882-013-0394-4


Physicians in practice should be knowledgeable regarding several aspects of autoimmune disorders, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis. These disorders can present to the clinician’s clinic and private office regardless of their speciality. This review will discuss various aspects of SLE, its mechanisms of disease, role of accelerated atherosclerosis, proinflammatory cytokines, and therapeutic approaches. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in which and plasma levels have been associated with disease activity, classification of severity, and diagnosis of lupus nephritis is addressed. Current treatment options, prognosis, and future therapeutic approaches and common side effects are also discussed.


Systemic lupus erythematosus Lupus nephritis Vascular endothelial growth factor TLR9 Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mayo Medical SchoolRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine and PediatricsNassau University, Medical CenterEast MeadowUSA

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