, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 596-606
Date: 08 Sep 2013

Molecular Basis for Downregulation of C5a-Mediated Inflammation by IgG1 Immune Complexes in Allergy and Asthma

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Abstract

Allergy and asthma are triggered primarily by the binding of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE)–allergen complexes to their receptors, recognition of the allergens by antigen-presenting cells, and allergen presentation to the T cells. These events lead to mucus secretions, runny nose, itchy eyes, sneezing, airway hyperresponsiveness, and nasal congestion. Complement 5a (C5a) has emerged as a central molecule that mediates these allergic reactions. Many allergens and allergen-specific IgG immune complexes (IgG-ICs) cause complement activation and C5a generation. C5a interaction with its receptor (C5aR) leads to the infiltration and activation of several immunologic cell types and the secretion of pathogenic inflammatory and proinflammatory mediators. However, IgG1-IC binding to the IgG inhibitory Fc gamma receptor (FcγRIIB) suppresses C5aR-mediated inflammatory signaling and, hence, may reduce the inflammatory immune responses through this FcγRIIB-mediated pathway. Reviews of the IgG1-IC interactions with C5a-mediated inflammatory immune responses suggest that IgG1-IC–C5a inhibitory therapy may reduce inflammation in allergic diseases.