, Volume 5, Issue 5, pp 370-375

Granulomatous disease in common variable immunodeficiency

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Abstract

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency of unknown etiology characterized by low levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, failure to make specific antibodies in response to infection or immunization, and variable T-cell abnormalities. Multisystemic granulomatous disease is a well-documented complication of CVID, and its presence is associated with significant morbidity and early mortality. Although the lung is the most common organ system affected, granulomas are also found frequently in other organs, including skin, liver, spleen, and the gastrointestinal tract. Autoimmune disorders are common in these patients, and there appears to be an increased propensity to develop lymphoproliferative disorders. Common physical, radiographic, and laboratory abnormalities in patients with CVID and granulomatous disease include splenomegaly, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy with ground glass or nodular opacities in the lung parenchyma, and reduced T-cell numbers and function. The etiology of granulomatous disease in patients with CVID is unknown, and optimal treatment of granulomatous disease in CVID remains to be established. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying etiology of granulomatous lymphoproliferative interstitial lung disease and to delineate appropriate treatments for this disease.