Gender ratio in dyslexia
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
This paper is based on a study carried out in Great Britain on a national sample of 11,804 ten-year olds. The first section describes an attempt to pick out cases of “specific developmental dyslexia” (Critchley 1970), a constellation or syndrome of difficulties which some believe to be recognizable clinically. When specified criteria for dyslexia were used, 269 children qualified as dyslexic (2.28 percent of the sample). These included 223 boys and 46 girls, for a ratio of 4.51 to 1. Two possible difficulties in interpreting these data are discussed, and a defense is offered of the criteria used.
Since some recent research papers report a gender ratio much nearer 1:1 (Shaywitz et al. 1990; Wadsworth et al. 1992; Lubs et al. 1993), those papers were examined for possible differences in procedure; it was found that the definition of dyslexia they used was “poor reading in relation to intelligence.” We carried out a further analysis on our own data using the same criterion. Of the 494 children who qualified as dyslexic on the basis of discrepancy criteria alone (4.19 percent of the sample), 314 were boys and 180 were girls for a ratio of 1.69 to 1. It seems, therefore, that the apparent differences in gender ratio reported in the literature have arisen because different criteria for dyslexia have been used.
We argue that the definition based on clinical criteria leads to a more powerful taxonomy and that the widespread equation of “dyslexia” with “poor reading” is a hindrance to progress.
- Butler, N. R., and Golding, J. 1986. From Birth to Five. A Study of the Health and Behaviour of Britain’s 5-year olds. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
- Butler, N. R., Haslum, M. N., Barker, W., et al. 1982a. Child Health and Education Study. First Report to the Department of Education and Science on the 10-year Follow-up. University of Bristol: Department of Child Health.
- Butler, N. R., Haslum, M. N., Stewart-Brown, S., et al. 1982b. Child Health and Education Study. First Report to the Department of Health and Social Security on the 10-year Follow-up. University of Bristol: Department of Child Health.
- Catts H. W. 1989. Phonological processing deficits and reading disabilities. In: A. G. Kamhi and H. W. Catts, eds, Reading Disabilities: A Developmental Language Perspective. Boston: Little Brown.
- Chamberlain, R., Chamberlain, G., and Howlett, B., et al. 1975. British Births 1970. Vol. 1. The First Week of Life. London: Heinemann.
- Chamberlain, G., Phillip, E., Howlett, B., et al. 1978. British Births 1970. Vol. 2. Obstetric Care. London: Heinemann.
- Critchley, M. 1970. The Dyslexic Child. London: Heinemann.
- Critchley, M. 1981. Dyslexia: an overview. In: G. Th. Pavlidis and T. R. Miles, eds. Dyslexia Research and Its Applications to Education. Chichester: Wiley.
- Critchley, M., and Critchley, E. A. 1978. Dyslexia Defined. London: Heinemann.
- DeFries, J. C., Stevenson, J., Gillis, J. J., and Wadsworth, S. J. 1991. Genetic etiology of spelling deficits in the Colorado and London twin studies of reading disability. In: B. F. Pennington, ed., Reading Disabilities: Genetic and Neurological Influences. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
- Elliott, C. D., Murray D. J., and Pearson L. S. 1979, 1983. The British Ability Scales. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
- Fenwick Stuart, M. 1988. Personal Insights into the World of Dyslexia. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
- Finucci, J. M., and Childs, B. 1981. Are there really more dyslexic boys than girls? In: A. Ansara, N. Geschwind, A. M. Galaburda, M. Albert, and M. Gartrell, eds., Sex Differences in Dyslexia. Towson, MD: Orton Dyslexia Society.
- Frith, U. 1997. Brain, mind and behaviour in dyslexia. In: C. Hulme and M. Snowling, eds., Dyslexia: Biology, Cognition and Intervention. London: Whurr.
- Galaburda, A. M. 1992. Correspondence in The New England Journal of Medicine 327, 4.
- Galaburda, A. M., and Livingstone, M. 1993. Evidence for a magnocellular deficit in dyslexia. In: P. Tallal, ed., Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 70–81.
- Ganschow, L., Lloyd-Jones, J., and Miles, T. R. 1994. Dyslexia and musical notation. Annals of Dyslexia 44:185–202. CrossRef
- Gilroy, D. E., and Miles, T. R. 1995. Dyslexia at College. (2nd rev. ed.). London: Routledge.
- Goldberg, H. K., and Schiffman, G. 1972. Dyslexia: Problems of Reading Disabilities. New York: Grune & Stratton.
- Hallgren, B. 1950. Specific dyslexia (congenital word blindness). A clinical and genetic study. Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Suppl.65:i–xi and 1287.
- Hampshire, S. 1981. Susan’s Story. London: Sidgwick & Jackson.
- Haslum, M. N. 1989. Predictors of dyslexia? Irish Journal of Psychology 10(4):622–30.
- Hermann, K. 1959. Reading Disability: A Medical Study of Word-Blindness and Related Handicaps. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
- Hier, D. B. 1980. Sex differences in hemispheric specialisation: Hypothesis for the excess of dyslexia in boys. Bulletin of the Orton Society 29:74–83.
- Hinshelwood, J. 1917. Congenital Word-Blindness. London: H. K. Lewis.
- Lubs, H. A., Rabin, M., Feldman, E., Jallad, B. J., Kushch, A., and Gross-Glenn, K. 1993. Familial dyslexia: Genetic and medical findings in eleven three-generation families. Annals of Dyslexia 43, 44–60. CrossRef
- Merzenich, M. M., Jenkins, W. M., Johnston, P., Schreiner, C., Miller, S. L., and Tallal, P. 1996. Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training. Science 272:77–80. CrossRef
- Miles, T. R. 1982, 1997. The Bangor Dyslexia Test. Wisbech, Cambridge: Learning Development Aids.
- Miles T. R. 1986. On the persistence of dyslexic difficulties into adulthood. In: G. Th. Pavlidis and D. F. Fisher, eds., Dyslexia: Its Neuropsychology and Treatment. Chichester: Wiley.
- Miles, T. R. 1991. Towards a prevalence figure for dyslexia. In: M. Snowling and M. Thomson, eds., Dyslexia: Integrating Theory and Practice. London: Whurr.
- Miles, T. R. 1993. Dyslexia: The Pattern of Difficulties. (2nd rev. ed.) London: Whurr.
- Miles, T. R. 1994. A proposed taxonomy and some consequences. In: A. J. Fawcett and R. I. Nicolson, eds., Dyslexia in Children: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
- Miles, T. R. 1996. Do dyslexic children have IQs? Dyslexia: An International Journal of Research and Practice 2(3):175–78.
- Miles, T. R., and Ellis, N. C. 1981. A lexical encoding deficiency II: Clinical observations. In: G. Th. Pavlidis and T. R. Miles, eds., Dyslexia Research and Its Applications to Education. Chichester: Wiley.
- Miles, T. R., and Haslum, M. N. 1986. Dyslexia: Anomaly or normal variation? Annals of Dyslexia 36:103–17.
- Miles, T. R., Haslum, M. N., and Wheeler, T. J. 1996. Handedness in dyslexia: Should this be routinely recorded? Dyslexia Review 8(2):7–9.
- Miles, T. R., Haslum, M. N., and Wheeler, T. J. 1997. Dyslexia and mathematics: Evidence from a large-scale survey. Paper delivered at the 4th International Conference of the British Dyslexia Association, York.
- Miles, T. R., Wheeler, T. J., and Haslum, M. N. 1994. Dyslexia and the middle classes. Links 2 1(2):17–19.
- Morgan W. P. 1896. A case of congenital word-blindness. British Medical Journal 2:1378. CrossRef
- Naidoo, S. 1972. Specific Dyslexia. London: Pitman.
- Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., and Dean, P. 1995. Time estimation deficits in developmental dyslexia: Evidence of cerebellar involvement. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. 259, 43–47. CrossRef
- Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., Maclagan, F., and Dean, P. 1996. Poster presented at the 47th international conference of the Orton Dyslexia Society.
- Norusis, M. J. 1983. Introductory Statistics Guide. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
- Orton, S. T. 1937/1989. Reading, Writing, and Speech Problems in Children. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
- Osborn, A. F., Butler, N. R., and Morris, A. C. 1984. The Social Life of Britain’s Five-year Olds: A Report on the Child Health and Education Study. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
- Oviedo, P. O. 1996. Adaptacion del Test de Dislexia Bangor al Castellano y al Gallego. Tesis de Licentiatura, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
- Pennington, B. F. (ed.) 1991. Reading Disabilities: Genetic and Neurological Influences. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
- Popper, K. R. 1963. Conjectures and Refutations. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
- Rack J. 1994. Dyslexia: The phonological deficit hypothesis. In: A. J. Fawcett and R. I. Nicolson, eds., Dyslexia in Children: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
- Rawson, M. B. 1995. Dyslexia Over the Lifespan: A Fifty-Five-Year Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
- Rutter, M., Tizard, J., and Whitmore, K. 1970. Education, Health and Behaviour. Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger.
- Rutter, M., and Yule, W. 1975. The concept of specific reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 16:181–97. CrossRef
- Scarborough, H. 1991. Antecedents to reading disability: Preschool language development and literacy. Experiences of children from dyslexic families. In: B. F. Pennington, ed., Reading Disabilities: Genetic and Neurological Influences. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
- Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., and Escobar, M. D. 1990. Prevalence of reading disability in boys and girls. Journal of the American Medical Association 264(3), 998–1002. CrossRef
- Shaywitz, S. E., Escobar, M. D., Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., and Makuch, R. 1992. Evidence that dyslexia may represent the lower tail of a normal distribution of reading ability. New England Journal of Medicine 326(3), 145–50. CrossRef
- Shaywitz, S. E., Fletcher, J. M., and Shaywitz, B. A. 1994. A new conceptual model for dyslexia. In: A. J. Capute, P. J. Accardo, and B. K. Shapiro, eds., Learning Disabilities Spectrum. Baltimore: York Press.
- Shortened Edinburgh Reading Test. 1985. Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder & Stoughton.
- Sidgwick, H. 1922. Methods of Ethics. London: Macmillan.
- Simpson, E. 1980. Reversals. London: Gollancz.
- Studdert-Kennedy, M., Liberman, A. M., Brady, S. A., Fowler, A. E., Mody, M., and Shankweiler, D. F. 1994–1995. Lengthened formant transitions are irrelevant to the improvement of speech and language impairments. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research.
- Tallal, P., Miller, S., and Fitch, R. H. 1993. Neurobiological basis of speech: A case for the preeminence of temporal processing. In: P. Tallal, ed., Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 70–81.
- Thach, W. F. 1996. On the specific role of the cerebellum in motor learning and cognition. Clues from PET activation and lesion studies in man. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 19,3, 411–31.
- Thomson, M. E. 1982. The assessment of children with specific reading difficulties (dyslexia) using the British Ability Scales. British Journal of Psychology 73:461–78.
- Wadsworth, S. J., DeFries, J. C., Stevenson, J., Gilger, J. W., and Pennington, B. F. 1992. Gender ratios among reading-disabled children and their siblings as a function of parental impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 33:1229–39. CrossRef
- Gender ratio in dyslexia
Annals of Dyslexia
Volume 48, Issue 1 , pp 27-55
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links