Date: 21 Sep 2012
Implicit sequence learning in dyslexia: a within-sequence comparison of first- and higher-order information
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The present study examines implicit sequence learning in adult dyslexics with a focus on comparing sequence transitions with different statistical complexities. Learning of a 12-item deterministic sequence was assessed in 12 dyslexic and 12 non-dyslexic university students. Both groups showed equivalent standard reaction time increments when the sequence was unexpectedly changed, suggesting that learning of the sequence took place. However, a novel analysis comparing transitions of differing complexity within the learning blocks indicated that dyslexic participants were impaired only for higher-order but not first-order sequence learning. No difference was found in the explicit awareness contribution between the two groups and this was found not to correlate with reaction time performance. This result suggests that statistical complexity of the sequence may account for intact and impaired learning performance in dyslexia.
Bennett, I. J., Romano, J. C., Howard, J. H. J., & Howard, D. V. (2008). Two forms of implicit learning in young adults with dyslexia. New York Academy of Sciences, 1145, 184–198.CrossRef
Berry, D., & Dienes, Z. (1993). Implicit learning: theoretical and empirical issues. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boada, R., & Pennington, B. F. (2006). Deficient implicit phonological representations in children with dyslexia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 95, 153–193.CrossRef
Brachacki, G. W. Z., Nicolson, R. I., & Fawcett, A. J. (1995). Impaired recognition of traffic signs in adults with dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28(297–308).
Bryant, P., & Bradley, L. (1985). Children’s reading problems: psychology and education. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Chun, M. M., & Jiang, Y. (1998). Contextual cueing: implicit learning and memory of visual context guides spatial attention. Cognitive Psychology, 36(1), 28–71.CrossRef
Cleeremans, A. (1993). Attention and awareness in sequence learning. Paper presented at the the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
Cleeremans, A., & Dienes, Z. (2008). Computational models of implicit learning. In R. Sun (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of computational modeling (pp. 396–421). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
Cleeremans, A., & Jiminez, L. (1998). Implicit sequence learning: the truth is in the details. In M. Stadler & P. Frensch (Eds.), Handbook of implicit learning (pp 323–364). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Academic Press.
Curran, T. (1997a). Effects of aging on implicit sequence learning: accounting for sequence structure and explicit knowledge. Psychological Research, 60, 24–41.CrossRef
Curran, T. (1997b). Higher-order associative learning in amnesia: evidence from the serial reaction time task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 522–533.CrossRef
Denckla, M. B., & Rudel, R. G. (1976). Automatized naming (R.A.N.): dyslexia differentiated from other learning disabilities. Neuropsychologia, 14, 471–479.CrossRef
Deroost, N., Zeischka, P., Coomans, D., Bouzza, S., Depessemier, P., & Soetens, E. (2010). Intact first- and second-order implicit sequence learning in secondary-school-aged-children with developmental dyslexia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 1, 1–12.
Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the process dissociation procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 343–350.CrossRef
Frensch, P., & Miner, C. S. (1994). Effects of presentation rate and individual differences in short-term memory capacity on an indirect measure of serial learning. Memory & Cognition, 22, 95–110.
Gombert, J. E. (2003). Implicit and explicit learning to read: Implication as for subtypes of dyslexia. Current Psychology Letters, 10(1).
Gomez, R. (1997). Transfer and complexity in artificial grammar learning. Cognitive Psychology, 33, 154–207.CrossRef
Gomez, R., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1994). What is learned from artificial grammars? Transfer tests of simple association. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 396–410.CrossRef
Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. (1990). Phonological skills and learning to read. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hepper, P. G., Scott, D., & Shahidullah, S. (1993). Newborn and fetal response to maternal voice. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 11, 147–153.CrossRef
Howard, J. H., Jr., & Howard, D. V. (1997). Age differences in implicit learning of higher order dependencies in serial patterns. Psychology and Aging, 12, 634–656.CrossRef
Howard, D. V., Howard, J. H., Jr., Japikse, K. C., DiYanai, C., Thompson, A., & Somberg, R. (2004). Sequence learning: effects of level of structure, adult age, and extended practice. Psychology and Aging, 19, 79–92.CrossRef
Howard, J. H., Jr., Howard, D. V., Japikse, K. C., & Eden, G. F. (2006). Dyslexics are impaired on implicit higher-order sequence learning but not on implicit spatial context learning. Neuropsychologia, 44(7), 1131–1144.CrossRef
Howell, D.C. (2007). Statistical methods for psychology. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Jeffries, S., & Everatt, J. (2004). Working memory: its role in dyslexia and other specific learning difficulties. Dyslexia, 10(3), 196–214.CrossRef
Kelly, S. W., Griffiths, S., & Frith, U. (2002). Evidence for implicit sequence learning in dyslexia. Dyslexia, 8(1), 43–52.CrossRef
Knopman, D. (1991). Long-term retention of implicitly acquired learning in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 880–894.
McGeorge, P., Crawford, J. R., & Kelly, S. W. (1997). The relationships between psychometric intelligence and learning in an explicit and an implicit task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 23, 239–245.
Menghini, Hagberg, G. E., Caltagirone, C., Petrosini, L., & Vicari, S. (2006). Implicit learning deficits in dyslexic adults: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 33, 1218–1226.CrossRef
Menghini, D., Hagberg, G.E., Petrosini, L., Bozzali, M., Macaluso, E., Caltagirone, C., et al. (2008). Structural correlates of implicit learning deficits in subjects with developmental dyslexia. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 1145, 212–221.
Nicolson, R. I., & Fawcett, A. J. (2000). Long-term learning in dyslexic children. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 12, 357–393.
Nissen, M. J., & Bullemer, P. (1987). Attentional requirements of learning: evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1–32.CrossRef
Orban, P., Lungu, O., & Doyon, J. (2008). Motor sequence learning and developmental dyslexia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1145, 151–172.CrossRef
Perin, D. (1983). Phonemic segmentation and spelling. British Journal of Psychology, 74, 129–144.CrossRef
Pothos, E. M., & Kirk, J. (2004). Investigating learning deficits associated with dyslexia. Dyslexia, 10, 61–76.CrossRef
Ramus, F., & Szenkovits, G. (2008). What phonological deficit? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 129–141.CrossRef
Reber, A. S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: an essay on the cognitive unconscious. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Reed, J., & Johnson, P. (1994). Assessing implicit learning with indirect tests: determining what is learned. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20, 585–594.
Remillard, G. (2008). Implicit learning of second-, third-, and fourth-order adjacent and non-adjacent sequential dependencies. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 400–424.
Remillard, G., & Clark, J. M. (2001). Implicit learning of first-, second-, and third-order transition probabilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 483–498.CrossRef
Romano, J. C., Howard, J. H., & Howard, D. V. (2010). One-year retention of general and sequence specific skills in a probabalistic serial reaction time task. Memory, 18, 427–441.
Roodenrys, S., & Dunn, N. (2007). Unimpaired implicit learning in children with developmental dyslexia. Dyslexia, 14(1), 1–15.CrossRef
Roodenrys, S., Koloski, N., & Grainger, J. (2001). Working memory function in attention deficit hyperactivity disordered and reading disabled children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19(3), 325–337.CrossRef
Russeler, J., Gerth, I., & Munte, T. F. (2006). Implicit learning is intact in adult developmental dyslexic readers: evidence from the serial reaction time task and artificial grammar learning. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28(5), 808–827.CrossRef
Savage, R. (2004). Motor skills, automaticity and developmental dyslexia: a review of the research literature. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 301–324.CrossRef
Seger, C. A. (1994). Implicit learning. Psychological Bulletin, 115(2), 163–196.CrossRef
Snowling, M. (2000). Dyslexia (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
Soetens, E., Melis, A., & Notebaert, W. (2004). Sequence learning and sequential effects. Psychological Research, 69, 124–137.CrossRef
Sperling, J., Lu, Z. L., & Manis, F. R. (2004). Slower implicit categorical learning in adult poor readers. Annals of Dyslexia, 54(2), 281–303.CrossRef
Stadler, M. A. (1992). Statistical structure and implicit serial learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 318–327.CrossRef
Stanovich, K. E. (2000). Progress in understanding reading: scientific foundations and new frontiers. New York: Guilford.
Stoodley, C. J., Harrison, E. P., & Stein, J. F. (2006). Implicit motor learning deficits in dyslexic adults. Neuropsychologia, 44(5), 795–798.CrossRef
Stoodley, C. J., Ray, N. J., Jack, A., & Stein, J. F. (2008). Implicit learning in control, dyslexic, and garden-variety poor readers. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1145, 173–183.CrossRef
Vicari, S., Finzi, A., Menghini, D., Marotta, L., Baldi, S., & Petrosini, L. (2005). Do children with developmental dyslexia have an implicit learning deficit? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 76, 1392–1397.CrossRef
Vicari, S., Marotta, L., Menghini, D., Molinari, M., & Petrosini, L. (2003). Implicit learning deficit in children with developmental dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 41, 108–114.CrossRef
Waber, D. P., Marcusa, D. J., Forbesa, P. W., Bellingera, D. C., Weilera, M. D., Sorensena, L. G., et al. (2003). Motor sequence learning and reading ability: is poor reading associated with sequencing deficits? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 84(4), 338–354.CrossRef
Walker, M. P., Brakefield, T., Hobson, J. A., & Stickgold, R. (2003). Dissociable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Nature, 425, 616–620.
Willingham, D. (1998). A neuropsychological theory of motor skill learning. Psychological Review, 105, 558–584.CrossRef
- Implicit sequence learning in dyslexia: a within-sequence comparison of first- and higher-order information
Annals of Dyslexia
Volume 63, Issue 2 , pp 154-170
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Implicit learning
- Sequence learning
- Serial reaction time task