Annals of Dyslexia

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 44–64

A written language intervention for at-risk second grade students: a randomized controlled trial of the process assessment of the learner lesson plans in a tier 2 response-to-intervention (RtI) model

  • Stephen R. Hooper
  • Lara-Jeane C. Costa
  • Matthew McBee
  • Kathleen L. Anderson
  • Donna Carlson Yerby
  • Amy Childress
  • Sean B. Knuth
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11881-011-0056-y

Cite this article as:
Hooper, S.R., Costa, LJ.C., McBee, M. et al. Ann. of Dyslexia (2013) 63: 44. doi:10.1007/s11881-011-0056-y

Abstract

In a randomized controlled trial, 205 students were followed from grades 1 to 3 with a focus on changes in their writing trajectories following an evidence-based intervention during the spring of second grade. Students were identified as being at-risk (n = 138), and then randomized into treatment (n = 68) versus business-as-usual conditions (n = 70). A typical group also was included (n = 67). The writing intervention comprised Lesson Sets 4 and 7 from the Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL), and was conducted via small groups (three to six students) twice a week for 12 weeks in accordance with a response-to-intervention Tier 2 model. The primary outcome was the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Written Expression Scale. Results indicated modest support for the PAL lesson plans, with an accelerated rate of growth in writing skills following treatment. There were no significant moderator effects, although there was evidence that the most globally impaired students demonstrated a more rapid rate of growth following treatment. These findings suggest the need for ongoing examination of evidence-based treatments in writing for young elementary students.

Keywords

PAL lesson plansResponse-to-intervention in written languageRtIWriting intervention moderatorsWriting subtypesWritten language, written language intervention in elementary school

Copyright information

© The International Dyslexia Association 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen R. Hooper
    • 1
  • Lara-Jeane C. Costa
    • 2
  • Matthew McBee
    • 3
  • Kathleen L. Anderson
    • 4
  • Donna Carlson Yerby
    • 4
  • Amy Childress
    • 2
  • Sean B. Knuth
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology, Pediatrics, and Education, The Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, CB#7255University of North Carolina School of MedicineChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.School of EducationUniversity of North Carolina-Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Frank Porter Graham Child Development InstituteUniversity of North Carolina-Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.The Carolina Institute for Developmental DisabilitiesUniversity of North Carolina School of MedicineChapel HillUSA