Article

Annals of Dyslexia

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 44-64

A written language intervention for at-risk second grade students: a randomized controlled trial of the process assessment of the learner lesson plans in a tier 2 response-to-intervention (RtI) model

  • Stephen R. HooperAffiliated withDepartments of Psychiatry, Psychology, Pediatrics, and Education, The Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, CB#7255, University of North Carolina School of Medicine Email author 
  • , Lara-Jeane C. CostaAffiliated withSchool of Education, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
  • , Matthew McBeeAffiliated withFrank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
  • , Kathleen L. AndersonAffiliated withThe Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
  • , Donna Carlson YerbyAffiliated withThe Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
  • , Amy ChildressAffiliated withSchool of Education, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
  • , Sean B. KnuthAffiliated withSchool of Education, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

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Abstract

In a randomized controlled trial, 205 students were followed from grades 1 to 3 with a focus on changes in their writing trajectories following an evidence-based intervention during the spring of second grade. Students were identified as being at-risk (n = 138), and then randomized into treatment (n = 68) versus business-as-usual conditions (n = 70). A typical group also was included (n = 67). The writing intervention comprised Lesson Sets 4 and 7 from the Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL), and was conducted via small groups (three to six students) twice a week for 12 weeks in accordance with a response-to-intervention Tier 2 model. The primary outcome was the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Written Expression Scale. Results indicated modest support for the PAL lesson plans, with an accelerated rate of growth in writing skills following treatment. There were no significant moderator effects, although there was evidence that the most globally impaired students demonstrated a more rapid rate of growth following treatment. These findings suggest the need for ongoing examination of evidence-based treatments in writing for young elementary students.

Keywords

PAL lesson plans Response-to-intervention in written language RtI Writing intervention moderators Writing subtypes Written language, written language intervention in elementary school