Annals of Dyslexia

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 78–97

Phonological awareness predicts activation patterns for print and speech

  • Stephen J. Frost
  • Nicole Landi
  • W. Einar Mencl
  • Rebecca Sandak
  • Robert K. Fulbright
  • Eleanor T. Tejada
  • Leslie Jacobsen
  • Elena L. Grigorenko
  • R. Todd Constable
  • Kenneth R. Pugh
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11881-009-0024-y

Cite this article as:
Frost, S.J., Landi, N., Mencl, W.E. et al. Ann. of Dyslexia (2009) 59: 78. doi:10.1007/s11881-009-0024-y

Abstract

Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from 6 to 10 years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for print relative to speech tokens in superior temporal and occipito-temporal regions. Differences between print-elicited activation levels in superior temporal and inferior frontal sites were also correlated with PA measures with the direction of the correlation depending on stimulus type: positive for pronounceable pseudowords and negative for consonant strings. These results support and extend the many indications in the behavioral and neurocognitive literature that PA is a major component of skill in beginning readers and point to a developmental trajectory by which written language engages areas originally shaped by speech for learners on the path toward successful literacy acquisition.

Keywords

Functional MRIPhonological awarenessReading developmentSuperior temporal gyrus

Copyright information

© The International Dyslexia Association 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen J. Frost
    • 1
  • Nicole Landi
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. Einar Mencl
    • 1
  • Rebecca Sandak
    • 1
  • Robert K. Fulbright
    • 1
    • 3
  • Eleanor T. Tejada
    • 6
  • Leslie Jacobsen
    • 1
    • 4
  • Elena L. Grigorenko
    • 1
    • 5
  • R. Todd Constable
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kenneth R. Pugh
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Haskins LaboratoriesNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  5. 5.Yale University Child Study CenterNew HavenUSA
  6. 6.Department of PediatricsYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA