Molecular prognostic factors in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been guided traditionally by clinical parameters such as the Ann Arbor Staging Classification for Hodgkin’s disease. Although the International Prognostic Index (IPI) represents the most widely accepted prognostic model, there is still a marked variability in outcome within identical IPI subgroups, reflecting the heterogeneity of this malignancy. Use of DNA microarray, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and tissue array immunohistochemistry methodologies makes the development of new classifications possible based on molecular profiling. The molecular classification of DLBCL may lead to the grouping of specific disease entities sharing similar biologic features, clinical behavior, and outcome. Once tested and validated, this new generation of prognostic models should become an integral part of the daily practice, providing valuable additional information to the currently existing clinically based predictive models. To accomplish these goals and to be in a position in which existing or new prognostic models can be easily tested and validated, there is a strong need to collect frozen and paraffin-embedded material that can be used for RNA extraction and construction of tissue arrays, respectively. Such materials should be gathered as an integral part of any planned study.
- Carbone PP, Kaplan HS, Musshoff K, et al.: Report of the Committee on Hodgkin’s Disease Staging Classifi-cation. Cancer Res 1971, 11:1860–1861.
- Freeman C, Berg JW, Cutler SJ: Occurrence and progno-sis of extranodal lymphomas. Cancer 1972, 1:252–260. CrossRef
- Rosenberg SA: Validity of the Ann Arbor staging classification for the non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Cancer Treat Rep 1977, 6:1023–1027.
- Shipp MA, Harrington DP, Klatt MM, et al.: Identifica-tion of major prognostic subgroups of patients with large-cell lymphoma treated with m-BACOD or M-BACOD. Ann Intern Med 1986, 6:757–765.
- Jagannath S, Velasquez WS, Tucker SL, et al.: Tumor burden assessment and its implication for a prognos-tic model in advanced diffuse large-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 1986, 6:859–865.
- Velasquez WS, Jagannath S, Tucker SL, et al.: Risk classification as the basis for clinical staging of diffuse large-cell lymphoma derived from 10-year survival data. Blood 1989, 2:551–557.
- Swan F, Jr, Velasquez WS, Tucker S, et al.: A new sero-logic staging system for large-cell lymphomas based on initial beta 2-microglobulin and lactate dehydro-genase levels. J Clin Oncol 1989, 10:1518–1527.
- Coiffier B, Gisselbrecht C, Vose JM, et al.: Prognostic factors in aggressive malignant lymphomas: descrip-tion and validation of a prognostic index that could identify patients requiring a more intensive therapy. The Groupe d’Etudes des Lymphomes Agressifs. J Clin Oncol 1991, 2:211–219.
- Rodriguez J, Cabanillas F, McLaughlin P, et al.: A proposal for a simple staging system for intermediate grade lymphoma and immunoblastic lymphoma based on the ‘tumor score’. Ann Oncol 1992, 9:711–717.
- A predictive model for aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The International Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Prognostic Factors Project. N Engl J Med 1993, 14:987–994. This study describes the most commonly utilized prognostic model, the IPI.
- Ichikawa A, Kinoshita T, Watanabe T, Hotta T, et al.: Mutations of the p53 gene as a prognostic factor in aggressive B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 1997, 337:529–534. CrossRef
- Leroy K, Haioun C, Lepage E, et al.: p53 gene mutations are associated with poor survival in low and low-intermediate risk diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Ann Oncol 2002, 7:1108–1115. CrossRef
- Kramer MH, Hermans J, Parker J, Krol AD, et al.: Clinical significance of BCL-2 and p53 protein expres-sion in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a population-based study. J Clin Oncol 1996, 7:2131–2138.
- Sohn SK, Jung JT, Kim DH, et al.: Prognostic signifi-cance of BCL-2, bax, and p53 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Am J Hematol 2003, 2:101–107. CrossRef
- Grogan TM, Lippman SM, Spier CM, et al.: Independent prognostic significance of a nuclear proliferation antigen in diffuse large cell lymphomas as determined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. Blood 1988, 4:1157–1160.
- Miller TP, Grogan TM, Dahlberg S, et al.: Prognostic significance of the Ki-67-associated proliferative antigen in aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas: a prospective Southwest Oncology Group trial. Blood 1994, 83:1460–1466.
- Jerkeman M, Anderson H, Dictor M, et al.: Assessment of biological prognostic factors provides clinically relevant information in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma—a Nordic Lymphoma Group study. Ann Hematol 2004, 7:414–419. CrossRef
- Saez AI, Saez AJ, Artiga MJ, et al.: Building an outcome predictor model for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Am J Pathol 2004, 2:613–622.
- Colomo L, Lopez-Guillermo A, Perales M, et al.: Clinical impact of the differentiation profile assessed by immunophenotyping in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood 2003, 1:78–84. CrossRef
- Bakhshi A, Jensen JP, Goldman P, et al.: Cloning the chro-mosomal breakpoint of t(14;18) human lymphomas: clustering around JH on chromosome 14 and near a transcriptional unit on 18. Cell 1985, 3:899–906. CrossRef
- Cleary ML, Sklar J: Nucleotide sequence of a t(14;18) chromosomal breakpoint in follicular lymphoma and demonstration of a breakpoint-cluster region near a transcriptionally active locus on chromosome 18. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1985, 21:7439–7443. CrossRef
- Hill ME, MacLennan KA, Cunningham DC, et al.: Prognostic significance of BCL-2 expression and BCL-2 major breakpoint region rearrangement in diffuse large cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a British National Lymphoma Investigation Study. Blood 1996, 3:1046–1051.
- Gascoyne RD, Adomat SA, Krajewski S, et al.: Prognostic significance of BCL-2 protein expression and BCL-2 gene rearrangement in diffuse aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Blood 1997, 1:244–251.
- Hermine O, Haioun C, Lepage E, et al.: Prognostic sig-nificance of BCL-2 protein expression in aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Groupe d’Etude des Lym-phomes de l’Adulte (GELA). Blood 1996, 1:265–272.
- Ye BH, Cattoretti G, Shen Q, et al.: The BCL-6 proto-oncogene controls germinal-centre formation and Th2-type inflammation. Nat Genet 1997, 2:161–170. CrossRef
- Offit K, Lo Coco F, Louie DC, et al.: Rearrangement of the BCL-6 gene as a prognostic marker in diffuse large-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 1994, 2:74–80. CrossRef
- Bastard C, Deweindt C, Kerckaert JP, et al.: LAZ3 rearrange-ments in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: correlation with histology, immunophenotype, karyotype, and clinical outcome in 217 patients. Blood 1994, 9:2423–2427.
- Kramer MH, Hermans J, Wijburg E, et al.: Clinical rele-vance of BCL-2, BCL-6, and MYC rearrangements in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood 1998, 9:3152–3162.
- Lossos IS, Jones CD, Warnke R, et al.: Expression of a single gene, BCL-6, strongly predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood 2001, 4:945–951. CrossRef
- Winter J, Weller E, Horning S, et al.: Rituximab (R) alters the prognostic indicator profile in diffuse aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Blood 2003, 11:101a-102a.
- Natkunam Y, Lossos IS, Taidi B, et al.: Expression of the human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) protein, A new marker of germinal center B cell derivation. Blood 2005. Epub ahead of print.
- Lossos IS, Alizadeh AA, Rajapaksa R, et al.: HGAL is a novel interleukin-4-inducible gene that strongly predicts survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood 2003, 2:433–440. CrossRef
- Ohshima K, Kawasaki C, Muta H, et al.: CD10 and BCL-10 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: CD10 is a marker of improved prognosis. Histopathology 2001, 2:156–162. CrossRef
- Fabiani B, Delmer A, Lepage E, et al.: CD10 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas does not influence survival. Virchows Arch 2004, 6:545–551. CrossRef
- Uherova P, Ross CW, Schnitzer B, et al.: The clinical sig-nificance of CD10 antigen expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Am J Clin Pathol 2001, 4:582–588. CrossRef
- Terol MJ, Lopez-Guillermo A, Bosch F, et al.: Expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: relationship with tumor dissemination and prognostic importance. J Clin Oncol 1998, 1:35–40.
- Terol MJ, Tormo M, Martinez-Climent JA, et al.: Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1/s-CD54) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: association with clinical characteristics and outcome. Ann Oncol 2003, 3:467–474. CrossRef
- Lei KI, Johnson PJ: The prognostic significance of serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 in patients with primary extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Cancer 2000, 6:1387–1395. CrossRef
- Jalkanen S, Reichert RA, Gallatin WM, et al.: Homing receptors and the control of lymphocyte migration. Immunol Rev 1986, 91:39–60. CrossRef
- Kincade PW: Molecular interactions between stromal cells and B lymphocyte precursors. Semin Immunol 1991, 6:379–390.
- Haynes BF, Telen MJ, Hale LP, Denning SM: CD44⊕ molecule involved in leukocyte adherence and T-cell activation. Immunol Today 1989, 10:423–428. CrossRef
- Horst E, Meijer CJ, Radaskiewicz T, et al.. Expression of a human homing receptor (CD44) in lymphoid malig-nancies and related stages of lymphoid development. Leukemia 1990, 5:383–389.
- Drillenburg P, Pals ST: Cell adhesion receptors in lymphoma dissemination. Blood 2000, 6:1900–1910.
- O’Reilly MS, Boehm T, Shing Y, et al.: Endostatin: an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Cell 1997, 2:277–285. CrossRef
- Bono P, Teerenhovi L, Joensuu H: Elevated serum endostatin is associated with poor outcome in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer 2003, 11:2767–2775. CrossRef
- Salven P, Orpana A, Teerenhovi L, Joensuu H: Simultaneous elevation in the serum concentrations of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF and bFGF is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a single-institution study of 200 patients. Blood 2000, 96:3712–3718.
- Southern E, Mir K, Shchepinov M: Molecular interactions on microarrays. Nat Genet 1999, 21(Suppl 1):5–9. CrossRef
- Butte A: The use and analysis of microarray data. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2002, 12:951–960. CrossRef
- Snider JV, Wechser MA, Lossos IS: Human disease characterization: real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression. Drug Discov Today 2001, 20:1062–1067. CrossRef
- Alizadeh AA, Eisen MB, Davis RE, et al.: Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling. Nature 2000, 6769:503–511. This is a pivotal paper describing two distinct subgroups of patients with DLBCL based on the expression pattern of genes characteristic of germinal center B-cells or activated peripheral blood cells.
- Rosenwald A, Wright G, Chan WC, et al.: The use of molecular profiling to predict survival after chemotherapy for diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 2002, 25:1937–1947. CrossRef
- Lossos IS, Alizadeh AA, Eisen MB, et al.: Ongoing immunoglobulin somatic mutation in germinal center B cell-like but not in activated B cell-like diffuse large cell lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000, 18:10209–10213. CrossRef
- Davis RE, Brown KD, Siebenlist U, Staudt LM: Constitutive nuclear factor kappaB activity is required for survival of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells. J Exp Med 2001, 12:1861–1874. CrossRef
- Lu X, Nechushtan H, Ding F, et al.: Distinct IL-4 induced gene expression, proliferation and intra-cellular signaling in germinal center B-cell like and activated B-cell like diffuse large cell lymphomas. Blood 2004, 7:2924–2932.
- Shipp MA, Ross KN, Tamayo P, et al.: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma outcome prediction by gene-expression profiling and supervised machine learning. Nat Med 2002, 1:68–74. CrossRef
- Wright G, Tan B, Rosenwald A, et al.: A gene expression-based method to diagnose clinically distinct subgroups of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003, 17:9991–9996. CrossRef
- Lossos IS, Czerwinski DK, Alizadeh AA, et al.: Prediction of survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on the expression of six genes. N Engl J Med 2004, 18:1828–1837. This study described a simplified model with potential for routine clinical use. This model was based on six genes with strong predictive power independent of the analysis platform. CrossRef
- Mounier N, Briere J, Gisselbrecht C, et al.: Rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) overcomes BCL-2-associated resistance to chemotherapy in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Blood 2003, 11:4279–4284. CrossRef
- Molecular prognostic factors in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Volume 6, Issue 4 , pp 269-277
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Current Medicine Group
- Additional Links