, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 463-473

Spinozistic Pantheism, the Environment and Christianity

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I am not a pantheist and I don’t believe that pantheism is consistent with Christianity. My preferred speculation is what I call the Swiss Cheese theory: we and our artefacts are the holes in God, the only Godless parts of reality. In this paper, I begin by considering a world rather like ours but without any beings capable of sin. Ignoring extraterrestrials and angels we could consider the world, say, 5 million years ago. Pantheism was, I say, true at that time. That is my qualified endorsement of pantheism. I then use the Sin premise, namely that we are capable of sinning, to argue that beings like us are not parts of God and I examine some consequences.

This a version of my paper from the Biennial Conference for Philosophy, Religion and Culture, Strathfield, 2–3 October 2010. I would like to thank all who participated in the discussion.