JOM
, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 65-72
Date: 15 Nov 2012

Application of In Situ Neutron Diffraction to Characterize Transient Material Behavior in Welding

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Abstract

A fundamental understanding of the transient and nonequilibrium material behavior during welding is essential in the pursuit of process control and optimization to produce defect-free, structurally sound, and reliable welds. The deep penetration capability of neutrons into most metallic materials makes neutron diffraction a unique and powerful tool in understanding the material structures and properties. However, the inadequate neutron flux limits its application in time-resolved study of transient material behavior. This article highlights recent developments toward in situ time-resolved neutron diffraction measurement of material behavior during welding with two examples: (I) measurement of the transient temperature and thermal stresses during friction-stir welding of an aluminum alloy and (II) measurement of the solid-state phase transformation behavior of an advanced high-strength steel under thermal conditions comparable to the welding processes. These newly developed experimental approaches can be broadly applied to other welding or thermomechanical processes for time-resolved measurement of the fast-changing material state in structural metals.