Calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone repair
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- Shepherd, J.H. & Best, S.M. JOM (2011) 63: 83. doi:10.1007/s11837-011-0063-9
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Calcium phosphates, with their chemical similarity to bone mineral, show biocompatibility with hard and soft tissues and offer massive potential for bone repair, both as scaffolds to be implanted directly into the defect and as structures for cell transplantation or to guide new bone growth in tissue engineering. This paper reviews the requirements and motivation for synthetic bone graft alternatives and the production routes for, particularly, hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds. It also considers the important role of substitution of ions such as silicate into calcium phosphates so as to more closely mirror the chemistry of bone mineral and to elicit specific biological responses.