Materials applications of photoelectron emission microscopy
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- Xiong, G., Shao, R., Peppernick, S.J. et al. JOM (2010) 62: 90. doi:10.1007/s11837-010-0189-1
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Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is a versatile technique that can image a variety of materials including metals, semiconductors and even insulators. Under favorable conditions the most advanced aberration corrected instruments have a spatial resolution approaching 2 nm. Although PEEM cannot compete with transmission or scanning electron microscopies for ultimate resolution, the technique is much gentler and has the unique advantage of imaging structure as well as electronic and magnetic states on the nanoscale. Since the image contrast is derived from spatial variations in electron photoemission intensity, PEEM is ideal for interrogating both static and dynamic electronic properties of complex nanostructured materials. Here, we review the key principles and contrast mechanisms of PEEM and briefly summarize materials applications of PEEM.