Journal of Cancer Survivorship

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 18–26

Do ongoing lifestyle disruptions differ across cancer types after the conclusion of cancer treatment?


  • Kenneth Mah
    • Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care ProgramPrincess Margaret Hospital
  • Andrea Bezjak
    • Department of Radiation OncologyPrincess Margaret Hospital, and University of Toronto
  • D. Andrew Loblaw
    • Odette Cancer Cancer CentreSunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and University of Toronto
  • Andrew Gotowiec
    • Department of PsychiatrySt. Joseph’s Health Centre, and University of Toronto
    • Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care ProgramOntario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, and University of Toronto
    • Toronto General Hospital

DOI: 10.1007/s11764-010-0163-5

Cite this article as:
Mah, K., Bezjak, A., Loblaw, D.A. et al. J Cancer Surviv (2011) 5: 18. doi:10.1007/s11764-010-0163-5



Cancer interferes with participation in valued lifestyle activities (illness intrusiveness) throughout post-treatment survivorship. We investigated whether illness intrusiveness differs across life domains among survivors with diverse cancers. Intrusiveness should be highest in activities requiring physical/cognitive functioning (instrumental domain). Intrusiveness into relationship/sexual functioning (intimacy domain) should be higher in prostate, breast, and gastrointestinal cancers than in others.


Cancer outpatients (N = 656; 51% men) completed the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale (IIRS) during follow-up. We compared IIRS Instrumental, Intimacy, and Relationships and Personal Development [RPD] subscale and total scores across gastrointestinal, lung, lymphoma, head and neck, prostate (men), and breast cancers (women), comparing men and women separately.


Instrumental subscale scores (Mmen = 3.05–3.80, Mwomen = 3.02–3.63) were highest for all groups, except prostate cancer. Men with prostate cancer scored higher on Intimacy (M = 3.40) than Instrumental (M = 2.48) or RPD (M = 1.59), p’s < .05; their Intimacy scores did not differ from men with gastrointestinal or lung cancer. Women collectively showed higher Instrumental (M = 3.39) than Intimacy (M = 2.49) or RPD scores (M = 2.27), p’s < .001, but not the hypothesized group difference in Intimacy.


Post-treatment survivors continue to experience some long-term interference with activities requiring physical and cognitive functioning. Sexual adjustment may be of special concern to men when treatments involve genitourinary functioning.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Ongoing monitoring with the IIRS to detect lifestyle interference throughout survivorship may enhance quality of life. Screening and intervention should target particular life domains rather than global interference.


Cancer diagnosisCancer survivorshipIllness intrusivenessPsychosocial factorsQuality of life

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010