Inhibition of oxidation in 10% oil-in-water emulsions by β-carotene with α- and γ-tocopherols
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The effects of low concentrations of β-carotene, α-, and γ-tocopherol were evaluated on autoxidation of 10% oil-in-water emulsions of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols. At concentrations of 0.45, 2, and 20 µg/g, β-carotene was a prooxidant, based on the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, hexanal, or 2-heptenal. In this emulsion, 1.5, 3, and 30 µg/g of γ-tocopherol, as well as 1.5 µg/g of α-tocopherol, acted as antioxidants and inhibited both the formation and decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides. Moreover, at a level of 1.5 µg/g, γ-tocopherol was more effective as an antioxidant than α-tocopherol. At levels of 0.5 µg/g, both α- and γ-tocopherol significantly inhibited the formation of hexanal but not the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. Oxidation was effectively retarded by combinations of 2 µg/g β-carotene and 1.5 µg/g γ- or α-tocopherol. The combination of β-carotene and α-tocopherol was significantly better in retarding oxidation than α-tocopherol alone. While γ-tocopherol was an effective antioxidant, a synergistic effect between β-carotene and γ-tocopherol could not be shown. The results indicate that there is a need to protect β-carotene from oxidative destruction by employing antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, should β-carotene be used in fat emulsions.
- Roozen, J.P., E.N. Frankel, and J.E. Kinsella, Enzymic and Autoxidation of Lipids in Low Fat Foods: Model of Linoleic Acid in Emulsified Hexadecane, Food Chem. 50:33–38 (1994). CrossRef
- European Parliament and Council Directive 94/36/EC, Colours for Use in Foodstuffs, Off. J. Eur. Comm. 237:13–39 (1994).
- Johnson, L.E., Food Technology of the Antioxidant Nutrients, CRC Critical Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 35:149–159 (1995). CrossRef
- Carnevale, J., E.R. Cole, and G. Crank, Fluorescent Light Catalyzed Autoxidation of β-Carotene, J. Agric. Food Chem. 2:462–463 (1979). CrossRef
- Christophersen, A.G., J. Huang, K. Joergensen, and L.H. Skibstedt, Photobleaching of Astaxanthin and Canthaxanthin. Quantum-Yields Dependence of Solvent, Temperature, and Wavelength of Irradiation in Relation to Packaging and Storage of Carotenoid Pigmented Salmonoids, Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 192:433–439 (1991). CrossRef
- Di Mascio, P., S. Kaiser, and H. Sies, Lycopene as the Most Efficient Biological Carotenoid Singlet Oxygen Quencher, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 274:532–538 (1989). CrossRef
- Conn, P.F., W. Schalch, and T.G. Truscott, The Singlet Oxygen and Carotenoid Interaction, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 11:41–47 (1991). CrossRef
- Kennedy, T.A., and D.C. Liebler, Peroxyl Radical Scavenging by β-Carotene in Lipid Bilayers, J. Biol. Chem. 267:4658–4663 (1992).
- Burton, G.W., and K.U. Ingold, β-Carotene: An Unusual Type of Lipid Antioxidant, Science 244:569–573 (1984). CrossRef
- Terao, J., Antioxidant Activity of β-Carotene-Related Carotenoids in Solution, Lipids 24:659–661 (1989). CrossRef
- Krinsky, N.I., and S.M. Deneke, Interaction of Oxygen and Oxy-Radicals with Carotenoids, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 69:205–209 (1982).
- Palozza, P., and N. Krinsky, The Inhibition of Radical-Initiated Peroxidation of Microsomal Lipids by Both α-Tocopherol and β-Carotene, Free Rad. Biol. Med. 11:407–414 (1991). CrossRef
- Esterbauer, H., H. Publ, M. Dieber-Rotheneder, G. Waeg, and H. Rabl, Effect of Antioxidants on Oxidative Modification of LDL, Ann. Med. 23:573–581 (1991).
- Jialal, I., E.P. Norkus, L. Cristol, and S.M. Grundy, β-Carotene Inhibits the Oxidative Modification of Low-Density Lipoprotein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1086:134–138 (1991).
- Kigoshi, M., and E. Niki, Inhibition of Oxidation of Lipids by Carotenoids, in Oxygen Radicals, edited by K. Yagi, M. Kondo, E. Niki, and T. Yoshikawa, Elsevier Science Publishers, London, 1992, pp. 635–656.
- Warner, K., and E.N. Frankel, Effects of β-Carotene Light Stability of Soybean Oil, J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 64:213–218 (1987). CrossRef
- Suzuki, T., R. Usuki, and T. Kaneda, The Role of Carotenoids in the Oxidative Deterioration of Edible Oils, J. Jpn. Oil Chem. Soc. 38:486–491 (1989).
- Haila, K., and M. Heinonen, Action of β-Carotene on Purified Rapeseed Oil During Light Storage, Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 27:573–577 (1994). CrossRef
- Haila, K., S. Lievonen, and M. Heinonen, Effects of Lutein, Lycopene, Annatto, and γ-Tocopherol on Autoxidation of Triacylglycerides, J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:2096–2100 (1996). CrossRef
- Lampi, A.-M., A. Hopia, P. Ekholm, and V. Piironen, Method for the Preparation of Triacylglycerol Fractions from Rapeseed and Other Oils for Autoxidation Studies, Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 25:386–388 (1992).
- FIL-IDF 74, Anhydrous Milk Fat. Determination of the Peroxide Value, International Dairy Federation (1974).
- Ueda, S., T. Hayashi, and M. Namiki, Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Lipid Autoxidation in a Model System, Agric. Biol. Chem. 50:1–7 (1986).
- Wagner, S.F., Analysis of Variance, in Introduction to Statistics, Harper Perennial, New York, 1992, pp. 239–273.
- Terao, J., R. Yamauchi, H. Murakami, and S. Matsushita, Inhibitory Effects of Tocopherols and β-Carotene on Singlet Oxygen-Initiated Photooxidation of Methyl Linoleate and Soybean Oil, J. Food Proc. Preserv. 4:79–93 (1980). CrossRef
- King, A.J., T.G. Uijttenboogaart, and A.W. de Vries, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Ascorbic Acid as Antioxidants in Stored Poultry Muscle, J. Food Sci. 60:1009–1012 (1995). CrossRef
- Huang, S.-W., E.N. Frankel, and J.B. German, Antioxidant Activity of α- and γ-Tocopherols in Bulk Oils and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions, J. Agric. Food. Chem. 42:2108–2114 (1994). CrossRef
- Huang, S.-W., E.N. Frankel, and J. B. German, Effects of Individual Tocopherols and Tocopherol Mixtures on the Oxidative Stability of Corn Oil Triacylglycerides, J. Agric. Food. Chem. 43:2345–2350 (1995). CrossRef
- Palozza, P., and N. Krinsky, β-Carotene and α-Tocopherol Are Synergistic Antioxidants, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 297:184–187 (1992). CrossRef
- Handelman, G.J., F.J.G.M. van Kuik, A. Chatterjee, and N.I. Krinsky, Characterization of Products Formed during the Autoxidation of β-Carotene, Free Rad. Biol. Med. 10:427–437 (1991). CrossRef
- Frankel, E.N., Antioxidant and Nutritional Effects of Tocopherols, Ascorbic Acid and β-Carotene in Relation to Processing of Edible Oils, Bibl. Nutr. Dieta 43:297–312 (1989).
- Inhibition of oxidation in 10% oil-in-water emulsions by β-carotene with α- and γ-tocopherols
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Volume 74, Issue 9 , pp 1047-1052
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors