Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sacha Inchi Oil using Conventional and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processes
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- Prado, G.H.C. & Saldaña, M.D.A. J Am Oil Chem Soc (2013) 90: 731. doi:10.1007/s11746-013-2205-4
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Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) oil has high polyunsaturated fatty acids content. The hydrolysis of this oil is an efficient way to obtain desirable free fatty acids (FFA). The optimization of parameters was carried out according to the maximum production of FFA using two enzymatic hydrolysis processes. The effect of enzyme concentration (5–40 % based on weight of oil), temperature (40–60 °C), and oil:water molar ratio (1:5–1:70) were studied for the conventional enzymatic hydrolysis process, while pressure (10–30 MPa) and oil:water molar ratio (1:5–1:30) were studied for the enzymatic hydrolysis in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) media. The hydrolysis in SC-CO2 media resulted in higher production of FFA (77.98 % w/w) at 30 MPa and an oil:water molar ratio equal to 1:5 compared to the conventional process (68.40 ± 0.98 % w/w) at 60 °C, oil:water molar ratio equal to 1:70, and 26.17 % w/w, enzyme/oil. The only significant parameter on the production of FFA for conventional enzymatic hydrolysis was enzyme concentration, while for the hydrolysis in SC-CO2 media both pressure and the molar ratio of oil:water were significant. Lipid class analyses showed that with both methods, FFA, monoglycerides, and diglycerides content in the final product increased compared to pure oil, while triglycerides content decreased. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that the content of fatty acids in the FFA form were similar to their triglyceride form.