Pilot-scale supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and fractionation of wheat germ oil
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
There is a need for the development of new processing techniques to facilitate vegetable oil extraction and refining while sustaining the nutritional components naturally present in edible oils and reducing the adverse impact of oil processing on the environment. In this study supercritical carbon dioxide (SC−CO2) extraction and fractionation techniques were examined as alternative methods to obtain wheat germ oil (WGO) of high quality and purity. It was shown that the SC−CO2 extraction technique is effective in extraction of WGO. There was no significant difference in the FA composition of SC−CO2- and hexane-extracted WGO. Both hexane-and SC−CO2-extracted WGO were rich in α-tocopherol. Moisture content of the SC−CO2-extracted oil was higher than that of the hexane-extracted oil. Solvent/feed ratio had a significant effect on the SC−CO2 extraction yields. This study demonstrated that supercritical fluid fractionation was a viable process to remove FFA efficiently from both hexane-and SC−CO2-extracted WGO while retaining bioactive oil components in the final product.
- Dunford, N.T., and J. Martinez, Nutritional Components of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extracted Wheat Germ Oil, in 6th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, Versailles, France, 2003, pp. 273–278.
- Gomez-Coronado, D.J.M., and C. Barbas, Optimized and Validated HPLC Method for a α- and γ-Tocopherol Measurement in Laurus nobilis Leaves. New Data on Tocopherol Content, J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:5196–5201 (2003). CrossRef
- Panfili, G., L. Cinquanta, A. Fratianni, and R. Cubadda, Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil by Supercritical CO2: Oil and Defatted Cake Characterization, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80:157–161 (2003). CrossRef
- Taniguchi, M., T. Tsuji, M. Shibata, and T. Kobayashi, Extraction of Oils from Wehat Germ with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49:2367–2372 (1985).
- Dunford, N.T., M. Goto, and F. Temelli, Modeling of Oil Extraction with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide from Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) at Different Moisture Contents, J. Supercrit. Fluids 13:303–309 (1998). CrossRef
- Dunford, N.T., and F. Temelli, Extraction Conditions and Moisture Content of Canola Flakes as Related to Lipid Composition of Supercritical CO2 Extracts, J. Food Sci. 62:155–159 (1997). CrossRef
- Dunford, N.T., and J.W. King, Supercritical Fluid Fractionation Process for Phytosterol Ester Enrichment in Vegetable Oils, U.S. Patent, 6,677,469 (2004).
- Dunford, N.T., J.A. Teel, and J.W. King, A Continuous Countercurrent Supercritical Fluid Deacidification Process for Phytosterol Ester Fortification in Rice Bran Oil, Food Res. Int. 36:175–181 (2002). CrossRef
- Dunford, N.T., and J.W. King, Phytosterol Enrichment of Rice Bran Oil by a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fractionation Technique, J. Food Sci. 65:1395–1399 (2000). CrossRef
- Dunford, N.T., and J.W. King, Thermal Gradient Deacidification of Crude Rice Bran Oil Utilizing Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78:121–125 (2001). CrossRef
- King, J.W., N.T. Dunford, and S.T. Taylor, Critical Fluid Options for the Extraction and Enrichement of Nutraceuticals, in 7th Meeting on Supercritical Fluids, Antibes/Juan-Les-Pins, France, 2000, pp. 537–547.
- AOCS, Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 4th edn., AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, 1994.
- Lowry, R.R., and I.J. Tinsley, Rapid Colorimetric Determination of Free Fatty Acids, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 53:470–472 (1976).
- Jonnala, R.S., N.T. Dunford, and K.E. Dashiell, New High-Oleic Peanut Cultivars Grown in the Southwestern United States, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82:125–128 (2005). CrossRef
- Jonnala, R.S., N.T. Dunford, and K. Chenault, Nutritional Composition of Genetically Modified Peanut Varieties, J. Food Sci. 70:S254-S256 (2005). CrossRef
- Eisenmenger, M., Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Fractionation, and Characterization of Wheat Germ Oil, M.S. Thesis, Okalahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 2005.
- Moreau, R.A., M.I. Powell, and K.B. Hicks, Extraction and Quantitative Analysis of Oil from Commercial Corn Fiber, J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:2149–2154 (1996). CrossRef
- Dunford, N.T. Use of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for Edible Oil Processing, Ph.D. Thesis, Univeristy of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, 1995.
- Fattori, M., R.N. Bulley, and A. Meisen, Fatty Acid and Phosphorus Content of Canola Seed Extracts Obtained with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, J. Agric. Food Chem. 35:739–743 (1987). CrossRef
- Friedrich, J.P., and E.H. Pryde, Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Lipid-Bearing Materials and Characterization of the Products, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61:223–228 (1984).
- Pilot-scale supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and fractionation of wheat germ oil
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Volume 83, Issue 10 , pp 863-868
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- free fatty acid
- oil refining
- supercritical carbon dioxide
- wheat germ oil
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Room 103, 74078, Stillwater, Oklahoma
- 2. Agricultural Products Research and Technology Center, Oklahoma State University, Room 103, 74078, Stillwater, Oklahoma
- 3. National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA, ARS, Peoria, Illinois
- 4. Thar Technologies, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania