The effect of intermittent and continuous heating of soybean oil at frying temperature on the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal and other α-, β-unsaturated hydroxyaldehydes

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Abstract

4-Hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) is a cytotoxic secondary lipid peroxidation product of linoleic acid. Previous investigations in this laboratory showed that HNE is formed in thermally oxidized soybean oil, which is high in linoleic acid. Continuous exposure of the oil to frying temperature (185°C) for up to 6 h graduallyincreased the formation of HNE and other polar lipophilic aldehydes. Additional investigations in this laboratory showed that HNE is absorbed into food fried in thermally oxidized oil in the same concentration as was found in the oil. In the present experiment, the effect of intermittent heating on the formation of HNE in soybean oil was compared with continuous heating. Soybean oil samples were heated either for 1 h each day for five sequential days or for 5 h continuously at 185±5°C. The thermally oxidized soybean oil samples were analyzed by HPLC for the presence of HNE and three other polar lipophilic α-,β-unsaturated hydroxyaldehydes: 4-hydroxy-2-trans-hexanal, 4-hydroxy-2-trans-octenal, and 4-hydroxy-2-trans-decenal. Under intermittent and continuous heating over a total of 5 h, the concentration of these compounds increased similarly. These results indicate that the formation of HNE and other hydroxyaldehydes at frying temperature is a cumulative result of oxidation of PUFA over time.