The production of fatty acid isopropyl esters and their use as a diesel engine fuel
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that consists of the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Currently, most biodiesel consists of methyl esters, which have poor cold-flow properties. Methyl esters of soybean oil will crystallize and plug fuel filters and lines at about 0°C. However, isopropyl esters have better cold-flow properties than methyl esters. This paper describes the production of isopropyl esters and their evaluation in a diesel engine. The effects of the alcohol amount, the catalyst amount, and two different catalysts on producing quality biodiesel were studied. Both sodium isopropoxide and potassium isopropoxide were found to be suitable for use in the transesterification process. A 20∶1 alcohol/TG molar ratio and a catalyst amount equal to 1% by weight (based on the TG amount) of sodium metal was the most cost-effective way to produce biodiesel fuel. The emissions from a diesel engine running on isopropyl esters made from soybean oil and yellow grease were investigated by comparing them with No. 2 diesel fuel and methyl esters. For nitrogen oxide emission, the difference between the biodiesel produced from soybean oil and yellow grease was greater than the difference between the methyl and isopropyl esters of both feedstocks. The other emissions from using isopropyl esters were about 50% lower in hydrocarbons, 10–20% lower in carbon monoxide, and 40% lower in smoke number when compared with No. 2 diesel fuel.
- Engler, C.R., W.A. Lepori, L.A. Johnson, and C.M. Yarbrough, Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MO, 1992, pp. 79–88.
- Perkins, L.A., and C.L. Peterson, Durability Testing of Transesterified Winter Rape Oil (Brassica napus L.) as Fuel in Small-Bore, Multi-cylinder, DI, CI Engines, SAE Paper no. 911764, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1991.
- Pestes, M.N., and J. Stanislao, Piston Ring Deposits When Using Vegetable Oil as a Fuel, J. Test. Eval. 12:61–68 (1984). CrossRef
- Clark, S.J., L. Wagner, M.D. Schrock, and P.G. Piennaar, Methyl and Ethyl Soybean Esters as Renewable Fuels for Diesel Engines, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61:1632–1638 (1984). CrossRef
- Vellguth, G., Performance of Vegetable Oils and Their Monoesters as Fuels for Diesel Engines, SAE Paper no. 831358, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1983.
- Monyem, A., The Effect of Biodiesel Oxidation on Engine Performance and Emissions, Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, 1998.
- Canakei, M., Production of Biodiesel from Feedstocks with High Free Fatty Acids and Its Effects on Engine Performance and Emissions, Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, 2000.
- McCormick, R.L., M.S. Graboski, T.L. Alleman, A.M. Herring, and K.S. Tyson, Impact of Biodiesel Source Material and Chemical Structure on Emissions of Criteria Pollutants from a Heavy Duty Engine, Environ. Sci. Technol. 35:1742–1747 (2001). CrossRef
- Tat, M.E., and J.H. Van Gerpen, Measurement of Biodiesel Speed of Sound and Its Impact on Injection Timing, Final Report for NREL Subcontract No. ACG-8-18066-01, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, May 2000.
- Tat, M.E., J.H. Van Gerpen, S. Soylu, M. Canakci, A. Monyem, and S. Wormley, Speed of Sound and Isentropic Bulk Modulus of Biodiesel at 21°C from Atmospheric Pressure to 35 MPa, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77:285–289 (2000). CrossRef
- Tat, M.E., and J.H. Van Gerpen, Fuel Property Effects on Biodiesel, ASAE Paper No. 036034, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MO, July 2003.
- Tat, M.E., Investigation of Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions from Biodiesel-Fueled Engines, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, 2003.
- Lee, I., L.A. Johnson, and E. Hammond, Use of Branched-Chain Esters to Reduce the Crystallization Temperature of Biodiesel, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72:1155–1160 (1995). CrossRef
- Johnson, L.A., and E.G. Hammond, Soybean Oil Ester Fuel Blends, U.S. Patent 5,520,708 (1996).
- Weast, R.C. (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (1970–71), 51 st edn, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
- Wu, W., T.A. Foglia, W.N. Marmer, R.O. Dunn, C.E. Goering, and T.E. Briggs, Low-Temperature Property and Engine Performance Evaluation of Ethyl and Isopropyl Esters of Tallow and Grease, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75:1173–1178 (1998).
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions, No. EPA420-P-02-001, EPA, Washington, DC, October 2002.
- McIntyre, B., ICIS-LOR Methanol Price Report, ICIS-LOR, Houston, TX, June 18, 2004.
- Goetze, A., ICIS-LOR Isopropanol Price Report, ICIS-LOR, Houston, TX, June 18, 2004.
- American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS), Total, Free and Combined Glycerol (Iodometric-Periodic Acid Method), in Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists Society, AOCS, Champaign, 1997, Official Method Ca 14-56, corrected 1991.
- American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), D675103a: Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend Stock for Distillate Fuels, in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 05.04 ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2005.
- American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS), “Acid Value,” in Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, AOCS, Champaign, 1997, revised 2003, Recommended Practice Cd 3d-63 (formerly Cd 3a-63).
- Canakei, M., and J.H. van Gerpen, A Pilot Plant to Produce Biodiesel from High Free Fatty Acid Feedstocks, ASAE Trans. 46:945–954 (2003).
- Canakei, M., and J.H. Van Gerpen, Biodiesel Production from Oils and Fats with High Free Fatty Acids, 44:1429–1436 (2001).
- Wang, P., The Production of Isopropyl Esters and Their Effects on a Diesel Engine, M.S. Thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, 2003.
- Universal Oil Products (UOP), Calculation of UOP Characterization Factor and Estimation of Molecular Weight of Petroleum Oils, UOP, Des Plaines, IL, Method 375-86.
- The production of fatty acid isopropyl esters and their use as a diesel engine fuel
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Volume 82, Issue 11 , pp 845-849
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- diesel fuel
- isopropyl esters
- Industry Sectors