Genotype and growing location effects on phytosterols in canola oil

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Abstract

There is little information available about phytosterols in canola (Brassica napa L.) oil and the effects of genotype and growing locations from Virginia and the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, a potential area for the establishment of domestic production to provide edible oil. Our objectives were to characterize the phytosterols, phospholipids, unsaponifiable matter, and FA in oil from Virginia-grown canola. Among 11 canola genotypes grown at two locations during 1995–1996 significant variations existed for oil content and FA profiles, but not for contents of phospholipids, unsaponifiable matter, total phytosterols, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol, Total phytosterol content in the oil of Virginia-grown canola varied from 0.7 to 0.9% with a mean of 0.8%. This concentration compared favorably with oil from Canadian canola, which typically contains 0.5 to 1.1% total phytosterols. The mean contents of brassicasterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, and Δ7-stigmatenol as percentages of total phytosterols in Virginia-grown canola were: 9.7, 32.0, 0.6, 49.3, 4.99, and 3.5%, respectively. Growing location did not affect phytosterols in Virginia-grown canola oil but had significant effects on contents of phospholipids, and saturated (myristic, stearic, and arachidic) and unsaturated (palmitoleic, linoleic, linolenic, eicosenoic, and erucic) FA.