Dependence of oil stability index of fatty compounds on their structure and concentration and presence of metals

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During storage and use, vegetable oil-derived industrial products such as biodiesel and biodegradable lubricants can be subjected to conditions that promote oxidation of their unsaturated components. The materials arising during oxidation and subsequent degradation can seriously impair the quality and performance of such products. Therefore, oxidative stability is a significant issue facing these vegetable oil-derived products, and enhanced understanding of the influence of various components of vegetable oils and storage parameters is necessary. In this work, the oil stability index (OSI) was used for assessing oxidation of monoalkyl esters of FA by varying several parameters. Neat fatty compounds and prepared mixtures thereof were studied for assessing the influence of compound structure and concentration. Small amounts of more highly unsaturated compounds had a disproportionately strong effect on oxidative stability. The recently developed concept of bis-allylic equivalents correlated more closely than the iodine value with the OSI times of mixtures of fatty esters. The OSI times of free acids were shorter than those of the corresponding alkyl esters. The presence of copper, iron, and nickel also reduced oxidative stability, but their effect was less than the presence of more highly unsaturated fatty compounds. Of these metals, copper had the strongest catalytic effect on OSI time. OSI may be an alternative to long-term storage tests for determining the influence of extraneous materials such as metals on oxidative stability.