Timms, R.E., Physical Properties of Oils and Mixtures of Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 62:241–248 (1985).
Watanabe, A., I. Tashima, N. Matsuzaki, J. Kurashige, and K. Sato, On the Formation of Granular Crystals in Fat Blends Containing Palm Oil, ——Ibid. 69:1077–1080 (1992).
Moran, D.P.J., Reduced Calorie Spreads, PORIM Technology No. 15, Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, 1993.
DeMan, L., and J.M. DeMan, Functionality of Palm Oil, Palm Oil Products and Palm Kernel Oil in Margarine and Shortening, PORIM Occasional Paper No. 32, Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, 1994.
Noor Lida, H.M.D., and A.R. Md. Ali, Physicochemical Characteristics of Palm-Based Oil Blends for the Production of Reduced Fat Spreads, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75:1625–1631 (1998).
Sreenivasan, B., Interesterification of Fats, ——Ibid. 55:796–805 (1978).
Rozendaal, A., Interesterification of Oils and Fats, in Edible Fats and Oils Processing: Basic Principles and Modern Practice, edited by D.R. Erickson, American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, 1989, pp. 152–157.
Rousseau, D., K. Forestière, A.R. Hill, and A.G. Marangoni, Restructuring Butterfat Through Blending and Chemical Interesterification. 1. Melting Behavior and Triacylglycerol Modifications, J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 73
Konishi, H., W.E. Neff, and T.L. Mounts, Chemical Interesterification with Regioselectivity for Edible Oils, ——Ibid. 70:411–415 (1993).
Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 4th edn., edited by D. Firestone, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1995, Method Ce 56-89.
PORIM Test Methods, Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, 1995, Method p4.9.
Md. Ali, A.R., and P.S. Dimick, Thermal Analysis of Palm Mid-Fraction, Cocoa Butter, and Milk Fat Blends by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 71:299–302 (1994).
Zainal, Z., and M.S.A. Yusoff, Enzymatic Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Palm Kernel Olein, ——Ibid. 76:1003–1008 (1999).
Krawczyk, G.R., G.S. Buliga, D.T. Bertrand, and W.M. Humpreys, Reviewing the Technology of Low-Fat Spreads, INFORM 7:635–639 (1996).
Bigalli, G.L., Practical Aspects of the Eutectic Effect on Confectionery Fats and Their Mixtures, Manuf. Confect. 53:65–80 (1988).
Dieffenbacher, A., The Optimal Use of Oils and Fats in Foods, Nestec Ltd. Technical Assistance, Vevey, Switzerland, 1988, pp. 21–31.
Timms, R.E., Phase Behavior of Fats and Their Mixtures, Prog. Lipid Res. 23
Laning, S.J., Chemical Interesterification of Palm, Palm Kernel, and Cocount Oils, J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 62:400–405 (1985).