Assessment of the arachidonic acid content in foods commonly consumed in the American diet
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Arachidonic acid (AA) is an extremely important fatty acid involved in cell regulation. When provided in the diet, it is cogently incorporated in membrane phospholipids and enhances eicosanoid biosynthesis in vivo and in vitro; however, controversy exists as to the levels of AA in food and in the diet. This study determined the amount of AA in cooked and raw portions of beef (rib eye), chicken (breast and thigh), eggs, pork (loin), turkey (breast), and tuna; it compared these results to values published in Agriculture Handbook No. 8 (HB-8). The cooked portions were prepared as described in HB-8. With the exception of chicken thigh and tuna, the levels of AA (w/w) in the selected foods analyzed were significantly higher, in general, than those values published in HB-8. The greatest differences were observed in beef (raw and cooked), turkey breast (raw and cooked), and pork (cooked) where AA levels were twice that of the values in HB-8. In contrast, the AA and n-3 fatty acid contents in tuna were almost half the HB-8 values. The present data indicate that HB-8 tends to underreport the amounts of AA in a number of foods commonly consumed in the American diet, and new initiatives should be considered to validate and update the current database for fatty acid composition of foods.
- German, J.B., Dillard, C.J., and Whelan, J. (1996) Biological Effects of Dietary Arachidonic Acid. Introduction, J. Nutr. 126, 1076S-1080S.
- Kliewer, S.A., Lenhard, J.M., Willson, T.M., Patel, I., Morris, D.C., and Lehmann, J.M. (1995) A Prostaglandin J2 Metabolite Binds Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma and Promotes Adipocyte Differentiation. Cell 83, 813–819. CrossRef
- Forman, B.M., Tontonoz, P., Chen, J., Brun, R.P., Spiegelman, B.M., and Evans, R.M. (1995) 15-Deoxy-delta 12, 14-Prostaglandin J2 Is a Ligand for the Adipocyte Determination Factor PPAR Gamma, Cell 83, 803–812. CrossRef
- Reginato, M.J., Krakow, S.L., Bailey, S.T., and Lazar, M.A. (1998) Prostaglandins Promote and Block Adipogenesis Through Opposing Effects on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma, J. Biol. Chem. 273, 1855–1858. CrossRef
- Anderson, K.M., Roshak, A., Winkler, J.D., McCord, M., and Marshall, L.A. (1997) Cytosolic 85-kDa Phospholipase A2-Mediated Release of Arachidonic Acid Is Critical for Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, J. Biol. Chem. 272, 30504–30511. CrossRef
- Ghrib, F., Pyronnet, S., Bastie, M.J., Fagot, R.P., Pradayrol, L., and Vaysse, N. (1998) Arachidonic-Acid-Selective Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Is Involved in Gastrin-Induced AR4-2J-Cell Proliferation, Int. J. Cancer 75, 239–245. CrossRef
- Shimakura, S., and Boland, C.R. (1992) Eicosanoid Production by the Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line AGS and Its Relation to Cell Growth, Cancer Res. 52, 1744–1749.
- Tebbey, P.W., McGowan, K.M., Stephens, J.M., Buttke, T.M., and Pekala, P.H. (1994) Arachidonic Acid Down-Regulates the Insulin-Dependent Glucose Transporter Gene (GLUT4) in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes by Inhibiting Transcription and Enhancing mRNA Turnover, J. Biol. Chem. 269, 639–644.
- Long, S.D., and Pekala, P.H. (1996) Regulation of GLUT4 Gene Expression by Arachidonic Acid. Evidence for Multiple Pathways, one of which Requires Oxidation to Prostaglandin E2, J. Biol. Chem. 271, 1138–1144. CrossRef
- Tebbey, P.W., and Buttke, T.M. (1992) Arachidonic Acid Regulates Unsaturated Fatty Acid Synthesis in Lymphocytes by Inhibiting Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene Expression, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1171, 27–34.
- Clarke, S.D., and Abraham, S. (1992) Gene Expression: Nutrient Control of Pre- and Posttranscriptional Events. FASEB J. 6, 3146–3152.
- Jurivich, D.A., Sistonen, L., Sarge, K.D., and Morimoto, R.I. (1994) Arachidonate Is a Potent Modulator of Human Heat Shock Gene Transcription. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2280–2284. CrossRef
- Janssen, T.U., Tomic, I., Specht, E., Beilecke, U., and Habenicht, A.J. (1994) The Arachidonic Acid Cascade, Eicosanoids, and Signal Transduction, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 733, 325–334.
- Khan, W.A., Blobe, G.C., and Hannun, Y.A. (1995) Arachidonic Acid and Free Fatty Acids as Second Messengers and the Role of Protein Kinase C, Cell Signal 7, 171–184. CrossRef
- Madamanchi, N.R., Bukoski, R.D., Runge, M.S., and Rao, G.N. (1998) Arachidonic Acid Activates Jun N-Terminal Kinase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Oncogene 16, 417–422. CrossRef
- Rao, G.N., Baas, A.S., Glasgow, W.C., Eling, T.E., Runge, M.S., and Alexander, R.W. (1994) Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases by Arachidonic Acid and Its Metabolites in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, J. Biol. Chem. 269, 32586–32591.
- Ramanadham, S., Gross, R., and Turk, J. (1992) Arachidonic Acid Induces an Increase in the Cytosolic Calcium Concentration in Single Pancreatic Islet Beta Cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 184, 647–653. CrossRef
- Paulsen, J.E., Elvsaas, I.K., Steffensen, I.L., and Alexander, J. (1997) A Fish Oil-Derived Concentrate Enriched in Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid as Ethyl Ester Suppresses the Formation and Growth of Intestinal Polyps in the Min Mouse, Carcinogenesis 18, 1905–1910. CrossRef
- Thun, M.J., Namboodiri, M.M., and Heath-CW, J. (1991) Aspirin Use and Reduced Risk of Fatal Colon Cancer, N. Engl. J. Med. 325, 1593–1596. CrossRef
- James, M.J., Gibson, R.A., D'Angelo, M., Neumann, M.A., and Cleland, L.G. (1993) Simple Relationships Exist Between Dietary Linoleate and the n-6 Fatty Acids of Human Neutrophils, and Plasma, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 58, 497–500.
- Whelan, J., Surette, M.E., Hardardottir, I., Lu, G., Golemboski, K.A., Larsen, E., and Kinsella, J.E. (1993) Dietary Arachidonate Enhances Tissue Arachidonate Levels and Eicosanoid Production in Syrian Hamsters, J. Nutr. 123, 2174–2185.
- Li, B., Birdwell, C., and Whelan, J. (1994) Antithetic Relationship of Dietary Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Eicosanoid Production in vivo. J. Lipid Res. 35, 1869–1877.
- Mann, N.J., Warrick, G.E., O'Dea, K., Knapp, H.R., and Sinclair, A.J. (1994) The Effect of Linoleic, Arachidonic and Eicosapentaenoic Acids Supplementation on Prostacyclin Production in Rats, Lipids 29, 157–162.
- Seyberth, H.W., Oelz, O.K., Kennedy, T., Sweetman, B.J., Danon, A., Frolich, J.C., Heimberg, M., and Oates, J.A. (1975) Increased Arachidonate in Lipids After Administration to Man: Effects on Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 18, 521–529.
- Ferretti, A., Nelson, G.J., Schmidt, P.C., Kelley, D.S., Bartolini, G., and Flanagan, V.P. (1997) Increased Dietary Arachidonic Acid Enhances the Synthesis of Vasoactive Eicosanoids in Humans, Lipids 32, 435–439.
- Mann, N.J., Johnson, L.G., Warrick, G.E., and Sinclair, A.J. (1995) The Arachidonic Acid Content of the Australian Diet Is Lower Than Previously Estimated. J. Nutr. 125, 2528–2535.
- Dolecek, T.A., and Grandits, G. (1991) Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT), in Health Effects of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids in Seafoods, (Simopoulos, A.P., Kifer, R.R., Martin, R.E., and Barlow, S.M., eds.), World Rev. Nutr. Diet, Vol. 66, pp. 205–216.
- Adam, O. (1992) Immediate and Long-Range Effects of the Uptake of Increased Amounts of Arachidonic Acid, Clin. Invest. 70, 721–727. CrossRef
- Phinney, S.D., Odin, R.S., Johnson, S.B., and Holman, R.T. (1990) Reduced Arachidonate in Serum Phospholipids and Cholesteryl Esters Associated with Vegetarian Diets in Humans, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51, 385–392.
- Sinclair, A.J., O'Dea, K., Dunstan, G., Ireland, P.D., and Niall, M. (1987) Effects on Plasma Lipids and Fatty Acid Composition of Very Low Fat Diet Enriched with Fish or Kangaroo Meat, Lipids 22, 523–529.
- Sinclair, A.J., Johnson, L., O'Dea, K., and Holman, R.T. (1994) Diets Rich in Lean Beef Increase Arachidonic Acid and Long-Chain Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Plasma Phospholipids, Lipids 29, 337–343.
- Nelson, G.J., Schmidt, P.C., Bartolini, G., Kelley, D.S., Phinney, S.D., Kyle, D., Silbermann, S., and Schaefer, E.J. (1997) The Effect of Dietary Arachidonic Acid on Plasma Lipoprotein Distributions, Apoproteins, Blood Lipid Levels, and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Humans, Lipids 32, 427–433.
- Mann, N., Sinclair, A., Pille, M., Johnson, L., Warrick, G., Reder, E., and Lorenz, R. (1997) The Effect of Short-Term Diets Rich in Fish, Red Meat, or White Meat on Thromboxane and Prostacyclin Synthesis in Humans, Lipids 32, 635–644.
- Li, D., Ng, A., Mann, N.J., and Sinclair, A.J. (1998) Contribution of Meat Fat to Dietary Arachidonic Acid, Lipids 33, 437–440.
- Haytowitz, D.B. (1995) Information from USDA's Nutrient Data Bank, J. Nutr. 125, 1952–1955.
- Taber, L., and Whelan, J. (1997) Determination of Arachidonic Acid Content in Foods Commonly Consumed in the American Diet, FASEB J. 11, A195
- U.S. Department of Agriculture (1990) Composition of Foods: Beef Products, p. 6, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture (1992) Composition of Foods: Pork Products, p. 5, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture (1979) Composition of Foods: Poultry Products, p. 6, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
- Bligh, E.G., and Dyer, W.J. (1959) A Rapid Method of Total Lipid Extraction and Purification, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37, 911–917.
- Fristrom, G.A., and Weihrauch, J.L. (1976) Comprehensive Evaluation of Fatty Acids in Foods. IX. Fowl, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 69, 517–522.
- Anderson, B.A., Kinsella, J.A., and Watt, B.K. (1975) Comprehensive Evaluation of Fatty Acids in Foods. II. Beef Products, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 67, 35–41.
- Terrell, R.N., Suess, G.G., Cassens, R.G., and Bray, R.W. (1968) Broiling, Sex and Interrelationships with Carcass and Growth Characteristics and Their Effect on the Neutral and Phospholipid Fatty Acids of the Bovine Longissimus dorsi, J. Food Sci. 33, 562–565. CrossRef
- Anderson, D.B., Breidenstein, B.B., Kauffman, R.G., Cassens, R.G., and Bray, R.W. (1971) Effect of Cooking on Fatty Acid Composition of Beef Lipids, J. Food Technol. 6, 141–152. CrossRef
- Janicki, L.J., and Appledorf, H. (1974) Effect of Broiling, Grill Frying and Microwave Cooking on Moisture, Some Lipid Components and Total Fatty Acids of Ground Beef, J. Food Sci. 39, 715–717.
- Chang, I.C.L., and Watts, B.M. (1952) The Fatty Acid Content of Meat and Poultry Before and After Cooking, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 29, 334–338.
- Weihrauch, J.L., Posati, L.P., Anderson, B.A., and Exler, J. (1977) Lipid Conversion Factors for Calculating Fatty Acid Contents of Foods, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 54, 36–40.
- Posati, L.P., Kinsella, J.E., and Watt, B.K. (1975) Comprehensive Evaluation of Fatty Acids in Foods. III. Eggs and Egg Products. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 67, 111–115.
- Anderson, B.A. (1976) Comprehensive Evaluation of Fatty Acids in Foods. VII. Pork Products, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 69, 44–49.
- Marmer, W.N., Maxwell, R.J., and Williams, J.E. (1984) Effects of Dietary Regimen and Tissue Site on Bovine Fatty Acid Profiles, J. Anim. Sci. 59, 109.
- Savell, J.W., Harris, J.J., Cross, H.R., Hale, D.S., and Beasley, L.C. (1991) National Beef Market Basket Survey, J. Anim. Sci. 69, 2883–2893.
- Malau-Aduli, A.E.O., Siebert, B.D., Bottema, C.D.K., and Pitchford, W.S. (1998) Breed Comparison of the Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Phospholipids in Jersey and Limousin Cattle, J. Anim. Sci. 76, 766–773.
- Assessment of the arachidonic acid content in foods commonly consumed in the American diet
Volume 33, Issue 12 , pp 1151-1157
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors