Lipids

, Volume 48, Issue 11, pp 1059–1068

Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Increases Brain Cholesterol Content in Adult Rats

  • Gwendolyn Barceló-Coblijn
  • Loren E. Wold
  • Jun Ren
  • Eric J. Murphy
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11745-013-3821-3

Cite this article as:
Barceló-Coblijn, G., Wold, L.E., Ren, J. et al. Lipids (2013) 48: 1059. doi:10.1007/s11745-013-3821-3

Abstract

Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content are known to occur in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43 %, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of postnatal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats.

Keywords

Fetal alcohol syndromeCholesterolPhospholipid fatty acid compositionBrainPhospholipids

Abbreviations

ABCA1

ATP-binding cassette-1

Akt

Protein kinase B

ApoE

Apolipoprotein E

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

CerPCho

Sphingomyelin

ChoGpl

Choline glycerophospholipids

CNS

Central nervous system

EtnGpl

Ethanolamine glycerophospholipids

Erk1/2

Extracellular signal regulated kinases

FASD

Fetal alcohol syndrome disorders

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

PakCho

1-O-Alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

PakEtn

1-O-Alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine

PlsCho

1-O-Alkyl-1′-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

PlsEtn

1-O-Alkyl-1′-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine

Ptd2Gro

Cardiolipin

PtdIns

Phosphatidylinositol

PtdOH

Phosphatidic acid

PtdSer

Phosphatidylserine

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome 10

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

Sn

Stereospecifically numbered

TLC

Thin layer chromatography

Copyright information

© AOCS 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gwendolyn Barceló-Coblijn
    • 1
    • 2
  • Loren E. Wold
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jun Ren
    • 1
    • 4
  • Eric J. Murphy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, School of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversity of North DakotaGrand ForksUSA
  2. 2.Lipid Biology Research Group, Research UnitHospital Universitari Son EspasesPalma de MallorcaBalearic Islands, Spain
  3. 3.Center for Cardiovascular Medicine, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital and the Department of PediatricsThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative MedicineUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA