, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 645-649

First online:

Enhanced Bioavailability of Eicosapentaenoic Acid from Fish Oil After Encapsulation Within Plant Spore Exines as Microcapsules

  • Ammar WakilAffiliated withHull Royal Infirmary, Michael White Diabetes Centre Email author 
  • , Grahame MackenzieAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, University of Hull
  • , Alberto Diego-TaboadaAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, University of Hull
  • , J. Gordon BellAffiliated withNutrition Group, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling
  • , Stephen L. AtkinAffiliated withHull Royal Infirmary, Michael White Diabetes Centre

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be enhanced by raising their bioavailability through microencapsulation. Pollen can be emptied to form hollow shells, known as exines, and then used to encapsulate material, such as oils in a dry powder form. Six healthy volunteers ingested 4.6 g of fish oil containing 20% EPA in the form of ethyl ester first alone and then as 1:1 microencapsulated powder of exines and fish oil. Serum bioavailability of EPA was measured by area under curve (AUC0–24). The mean AUC0–24 of EPA from ethyl ester with exine (M = 19.7, SD = 4.3) was significantly higher than ethyl ester without exines (M = 2, SD = 1.4, p < 0.01).The bioavailability of EPA is enhanced by encapsulation by pollen exines.


Exines Microencapsulation Eicosapentaenoic acid Bioavailability