, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 471-476

A carbohydrate-rich diet reduces LDL size in QQ homozygotes for the Gln192Arg polymorphism of the paraoxonase 1 gene

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Abstract

Paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) is an esterase with antioxidant properties that is present in HDL. Gln192Arg polymorphism (also named Q192R or Q/R) of the PON 1 gene that encodes this protein defines two alleles (Q and R). The R allele has been associated with higher cardiovascular risk. LDL size and susceptibility to oxidation also have been identified as cardiovascular risk factors. Our objective was to determine whether genetic variations in the Gln192Arg polymorphism influence LDL size and susceptibility to oxidation after the consumption of diets with different fat content. In our experiments, the participants (n=98), underwent three 4-wk diets—one, saturated fat-enriched (SAT); another, monounsaturated fat-enriched (MONO); and a third, carbohydrate-enriched (CHO). We observed that LDL were smaller in the QQ group after the CHO diet vs. the SAT (P<0.01) and MONO diets (P<0.03). No differences in LDL size were found in QR/RR subjects. When we analyzed lag time of oxidation of LDL, we found that when carriers of the R allele (QR/RR) received the MONO diet, the lag period of LDL oxidation was longer as compared with the CHO diet. Otherwise, we found no differences in QQ homozygotes when we evaluated the lag time of oxidation of LDL after the three diets. These results suggest that the Gln192Arg polymorphism of the paraoxonase gene influences LDL size and susceptibility to oxidation in response to diet.