Dietary intakes and food sources of n−6 and n−3 PUFA in french adult men and women
The intake of individual n−6 and n−3 PUFA has been estimated in 4,884 adult subjects (2,099 men and 2,785 women), volunteers from the French SU.VI.MAX intervention trial. The food intakes of each subject were recorded in at least ten 24-h record questionnaires completed over a period of 2.5 yr, allowing the estimation of the daily intake of energy; total fat; and linoleic, α-linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), n−3 docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. The mean total fat intake corresponded to 94.1 g/d (36.3% of total energy intake) in men and 73.4 g/d (38.1% of energy) in women. The intake of linoleic acid was 10.6 g/d in men and 8.1 g/d in women, representing 4.2% of energy intake; that of α-linolenic acid was 0.94 g/d in men and 0.74 g/d in women, representing 0.37% of energy intake, with a mean linoleic/α-linolenic acid ratio of 11.3. The mean intakes of long-chain PUFA were: arachidonic acid, 204 mg/d in men and 152 mg/d in women; EPA, 150 mg/d in men and 118 mg/d in women; DPA, 75 mg/d in men and 56 mg/d in women; DHA, 273 mg/d in men and 226 mg/d in women; long-chain n−3 PUFA, 497 mg/d in men and 400 mg/d in women. Ninety-five percent of the sample consumed less than 0.5% of energy as α-linolenic acid, which is well below the current French recommendation for adults (0.8% of energy). In contrast, the mean intakes of long-chain n−6 and n−3 PUFA appear fairly high and fit the current French recommendations (total long-chain PUFA: 500 mg/d in men and 400 mg/d in women; DHA: 120 mg/d in men and 100 mg/d in women). The intakes of α-linolenic acid, and to a lesser extent of linoleic acid, were highly correlated with that of lipids. Whereas the main source of linoleic acid was vegetable oils, all food types contributed to α-linolenic acid intake, the main ones being animal products (meat, poultry, and dairy products). The main source of EPA and DHA (and of total long-chain n−3 PUFA) was fish and seafood, but the major source of DPA was meat, poultry, and eggs. Fish and seafood consumption showed very large interindividual variations, the low consumers being at risk of insufficient n−3 PUFA intake.
n−3 docosapentaenoic acid
essential fatty acids