Selective increase in pinolenic acid (all-cis-5,9,12–18∶3) in Korean pine nut oil by crystallization and its effect on LDL-receptor activity
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The aims of this study were to obtain concentrated pinolenic acid (5,9,12–18∶3) from dietary Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) nut oil by urea complexation and to investigate its cholesteroi-lowering effect on the LDL-receptor activity of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Pine nut oil was hydrolyzed to provide a low-pinolenic acid-containing FA extract (LPAFAE), followed by crystallization with different ratios of urea in ethanol (EtOH) or methanol (MeOH) as a solvent to produce a high-pinolenic acid-containing FA extract (HPAFAE). The profiles of HPAFAE obtained by urea complexation showed different FA compositions compared with LPAFAE. The long-chain saturated FA palmitic acid (16∶0) and stearic acid (18∶0) were decreased with urea/FA ratios (UFR) of 1∶1 (UFR1), 2∶1 (UFR2), and 3∶1 (UFR3). Linoleic acid (9,12–18∶2) was increased 1.3 times with UFR2 in EtOH, and linolenic acid (9,12,15–18∶3) was increased 1.5 times with UFR3 in MeOH after crystallization. The crystallization with UFR3 in EtOH provided the highest concentration of pinolenic acid, which was elevated by 3.2-fold from 14.1 to 45.1%, whereas that of linoleic acid (9,12–18∶2) was not changed, and that of oleic acid (9–18∶1) was decreased 7.2-fold. Treatment of HepG2 cells with HPAFE resulted in significantly higher internalization of 3,3′-dioctadecylindocarbocyanine-LDL (47.0±0.15) as compared with treatment with LPAFAE (25.6±0.36) (P<0.05). Thus, we demonstrate a method for the concentration of pinolenic acid and suggest that this concentrate may have LDL-lowering properties by enhancing hepatic LDL uptake.
- Hollingsworth, P. (1997) Mainstreaming Healthy Foods, Food Technol. 51, 55–58.
- Bloch, A., and Thomson, C.A. (1995) Position of the American Dietetic Association: Phytochemicals and Functional Foods, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 95, 493–496. CrossRef
- Hardy, G. (2000) Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods: Introduction and Meaning, Nutrition 16, 688–689. CrossRef
- Lichtenstein, A.H. (1996) Dietary Fatty Acids and Lipoprotein Metabolism, Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 7, 155–161. CrossRef
- Phillipson, B.E., Rothrock, D.W., Connor, W.E., Harris, W.S., and Illingworth, D.R. (1985) Reduction of Plasma Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apoproteins by Dietary Fish Oils in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia, N. Engl. J. Med. 312, 1210–1216. CrossRef
- Imbs, A.B., Nevshupova, N.V., and Pham, L.Q. (1998) Triacylglycerol Composition of Pinus koraiensis Seed Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 865–870.
- Robert, L.W., Eric, D., and Jean-Charles, M. (1997) Positional Distribution of Δ5 Olefinic Acids in Triacylglycerols from Conifer Seed Oils: General and Specific Enrichment in the sn-3 Position, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74, 515–523.
- Asset, G., Staels, B., Wolff, R.L., Bauge, E., Madj, Z., Fruchart, J.C., and Dallongeville, J. (1999) Effects of Pinus pinaster and Pinus koraiensis Seed Oil Supplementation on Lipoprotein Metabolism in the Rat, Lipids 34, 39–44. CrossRef
- Sugano, M., Ikeda, I., Wakamatsu, K., and Oka, T. (1994) Influence of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis)-Seed Oil Containing cis-5, cis-9,cis-12-Octadecatrienoic Acid on Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism, Eicosanoid Production and Blood Pressure of Rats, Br. J. Nutr. 72, 775–783. CrossRef
- Kurushima, H., Hayashi, K., Toyota, Y., Kambe, M., and Kajiyama, G. (1995) Comparison of Hypocholesterolemic Effects Induced by Dietary Linoleic Acid and Oleic Acid in Hamsters, Atherosclerosis 114, 213–221. CrossRef
- Ibrahim, J.B., and McNamara, D.J. (1988) Cholesterol Homeostasis in Guinea Pigs Fed Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fat Diets, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 963, 109–118.
- Gomes, T., and Caponio, F. (1997) Evaluation of the State of Oxidation of Crude Olive-Pomace Oils. Influence of Olive-Pomace Drying and Oil Extraction with Solvent, J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1381–1384. CrossRef
- Ko, S.N., Kim, H., Lee, K.T., Ha, T.Y., Chung, S.H., Lee, S.M., and Kim, I.H. (2003) Optimization of Enzymatic Synthesis of Structured Lipid with Perilla Oil and Medium Chain Fatty Acid, Food Sci. Biotechnol. 12, 253–256.
- Graham, J.M., Higgins, J.A., Gillott, T., Taylor, T., Wilkinson, J., Ford, T., and Billington D. (1996) A Novel Method for the Rapid Separation of Plasma Lipoproteins Using Self-Generating Gradients of Iodixanol, Atherosclerosis 124, 125–135. CrossRef
- Stephan, Z.F., and Yurachek, E.C. (1993) Rapid Fluorometric Assay of LDL Receptor Activity by DiI-Labeled LDL, J. Lipid Res. 34, 325–330.
- Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., and Randall, R.J. (1951) Protein Measurement with Folin Phenol Reagent, J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265–275.
- Cho, B.H., Dokko, R.C., and Chung, B.H. (2002) Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Enhance Receptor-Mediated Uptake of Low Density Lipoproteins in Hep-G2 Cells, J. Nutr. Biochem. 13, 330–336. CrossRef
- Hayes, D.G., Bengtsson, Y.C., Van Alstine, J.M., and Setterwall, F. (1998) Urea Complexation for the Rapid, Ecologically Responsible Fraction of Fatty Acids from Seed Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75, 1403–1409.
- Grompone, M.A. (1992) Enrichment of Omega-3 PUFAs from Fur Seal Oil, Fat Sci. Technol. 94, 388–394.
- Selective increase in pinolenic acid (all-cis-5,9,12–18∶3) in Korean pine nut oil by crystallization and its effect on LDL-receptor activity
Volume 39, Issue 4 , pp 383-387
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Korea University, 136-703, Seoul, Korea
- 2. Division of Food Science, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Korea University, 1,5-ka, Anamdong, Sungbuk-ku, 136-701, Seoul, Republic of Korea
- 3. Institute of Life Science and Natural Resources, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Korea University, 136-703, Seoul, Korea
- 4. Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, Korea University, 136-703, Seoul, Korea