Lipids

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 123–131

Dietary cis and trans monounsaturated and saturated FA and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in men

  • Joseph T. Judd
  • David J. Baer
  • Beverly A. Clevidence
  • Penny Kris-Etherton
  • Richard A. Muesing
  • Marika Iwane
Articles

DOI: 10.1007/s11745-002-0871-9

Cite this article as:
Judd, J.T., Baer, D.J., Clevidence, B.A. et al. Lipids (2002) 37: 123. doi:10.1007/s11745-002-0871-9

Abstract

Trans monounsaturated fatty acids (TFA) are hypercholesterolemic compared to oleic acid to a degree approaching or equivalent to saturated FA. However, it is unknown to what extent these effects may be due to cholesterol lowering by oleic acid rather than elevation by saturated FA and TFA. In order to better understand the impact of replacing TFA in foods, it is first necessary to know the relative lipid-modifying effects of the major FA that change as TFA are lowered or removed. For 5 wk, 50 normocholesterolemic men were fed controlled diets providing approximately 15% of energy from protein, 39% from fat, and 46% from carbohydrate in a randomized, 6×6, crossover design. Eight percent of energy was replaced across diets with the following: carbohydrate (CHO) (1∶1 simple to complex); oleic acid (OL); TFA; stearic acid (STE); TFA/STE (4% of energy from each); carbon 12∶0 16∶0 saturated FA (LMP). LDL cholesterol concentrations (mmol/l) were as follows (different superscripts indicate significance at P≤0.01): OL 2.95a; CHO 3.05a,b; STE 3.10b,c; LMP 3.21c,d; TFA+STE 3.32d,e; and TFA 3.36e. HDL cholesterol concentrations (mmol/L) were as allows: STE 1.16a; IFA 1.16a,b; TFA/STE 1.17a,b; CHO 1.19b; OL 1.24c; and LMP 1.30d. Triacylglycerides were highest after STE (1.13) and lowest after OL (0.88) (P<0.001). Thus, compared to the carbohydrate control diet, TFA raised LDL cholesterol at least equivalent to LMP but had no effect on HDI cholesterol; STE had no effect on LDL cholesterol but lowered HDL cholesterol; LMP raised both LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol; and oleic acid raised HDL cholesterol but had no effect on LDL cholesterol.

Abbreviations

apo

plasma apolipoprotein

BHNRC

Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center

BMI

body mass index

CHO, LMP, OL, STE, and TFA

basal diet enriched with carbohydrate, saturated FA (as the sum lauric +myristic+palmitic acids) oleic acid, stearic acid, or trans monunsaturated

FA

respectively

CVD

cardiovascular disease

en%

percentage of dietary energy

HDL-C

plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol

LDL-C

plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol

LMP

sum of lauric (L), myristic (M), and palmitic (P) FA

OL

oleic acid

STE

stearic acid

TC

total plasma cholesterol

TFA

trans monounsaturated FA

TFA/STE

basal diet plus 4% of energy (4 en%) added as trans fatty acids and 4 en% as stearic acid

TG

triacylglycerides

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph T. Judd
    • 4
  • David J. Baer
    • 4
  • Beverly A. Clevidence
    • 4
  • Penny Kris-Etherton
    • 1
  • Richard A. Muesing
    • 2
  • Marika Iwane
    • 3
  1. 1.Nutrition DepartmentPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity Park
  2. 2.Lipid Research ClinicThe George Washington University Medical CenterWashington DC
  3. 3.Statistics CollaborativeWashington, DC
  4. 4.Diet and Human Performance LaboratoryBHNRCBeltsville