, Volume 36, Issue 10, pp 1179–1181

Transforming growth factor beta in human milk does not change in response to modest intakes of docosahexaenoic acid

  • J. S. Hawkes
  • D-L. Bryan
  • M. A. Neumann
  • M. Makrides
  • R. A. Gibson

DOI: 10.1007/s11745-001-0830-5

Cite this article as:
Hawkes, J.S., Bryan, DL., Neumann, M.A. et al. Lipids (2001) 36: 1179. doi:10.1007/s11745-001-0830-5


Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with aspects of immune regulation including cytokine production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation with tuna oil, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the concentration of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and TGFβ2 in breast milk. In this randomized, dietary intervention trial, mothers of term infants consumed a daily supplement of 2000 mg oil containing either placebo (n=40), 300 mg DHA (n=40), or 600 mg DHA (n=40). The DHA increase in milk and plasma was proportional to dietary DHA. There was no relationship between milk DHA status and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 levels.



arachidonic acid


analysis of variance


docosahexaenoic acid


enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


eicosapentaenoic acid


long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid


transforming growth factor beta

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Hawkes
    • 1
  • D-L. Bryan
    • 2
  • M. A. Neumann
    • 1
  • M. Makrides
    • 3
  • R. A. Gibson
    • 1
  1. 1.Child Nutrition Research CentreFlinders Medical CentreBedford Park
  2. 2.Department of Paediatrics and Child HealthFlinders University of South AustraliaBedford Park
  3. 3.Child Health Research InstituteNorth AdelaideAustralia