Lipids

, Volume 36, Issue 9, pp 1007–1024

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11745-001-0812-7

Cite this article as:
Calder, P.C. Lipids (2001) 36: 1007. doi:10.1007/s11745-001-0812-7

Abstract

The fatty acid composition of inflammatory and immune cells is sensitive to change according to the fatty acid composition of the diet. In particular, the proportion of different types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in these cells is readily changed, and this provides a link between dietary PUFA intake, inflammation, and immunity. The n−6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and related compounds, which have important roles in inflammation and in the regulation of immunity. Fish oil contains the n−3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Feeding fish oil results in partial replacement of AA in cell membranes by EPA. This leads to decreased production of AA-derived mediators. In addition, EPA is a substrate for cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase and gives rise to mediators that often have different biological actions or potencies than those formed from AA. Animal studies have shown that dietary fish oil results in altered lymphocyte function and in suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. Supplementation of the diet of healthy human volunteers with fish oil-derived n−3 PUFA results in decreased monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil feeding has been shown to ameliorate the symptoms of some animal models of autoimmune disease. Clinical studies have reported that fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and among some asthmatics, supporting the idea that the n−3 PUFA in fish oil are antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory.

Abbreviations

AA

araehidonic acid

ALNA

α-linolenic acid

COX

cyclooxygenase

DGLA

dihomo-γ-linolenic acid

DHA

docosahexaenoic acid

DTH

delayed-type hypersensitivity

EPA

eicosapentaenoic acid

HETE

hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

HPETE

hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid

IFN

interferon; Ig, immunoglobulin

IL

interleukin

KLH

keyhole limpet hemocyanin

5-LOX

5-lipoxygenase

LT

leukotriene

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

NK

natural killer

PG

prostaglandin

Th

helper T cells

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Human NutritionUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK