, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 11-24

Food allergy and food intolerance: diagnosis and treatment

Abstract

Food allergy is a matter of concern because it affects about 0.5–3.8% of the paediatric population and 0.1–1% of adults, and as well may cause life-threatening reactions. Skin prick testing with food extracts and with fresh foods, the measurement of food-specific IgE, elimination diets and a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge are the main diagnostic procedures; many non-validated procedures are available, creating confusion among patients and physicians. The treatment of food allergy is still a matter of debate. Antihistamines, corticosteroids and, if necessary (in case of anaphylaxis), epinephrine, are the drugs of choice for the treatment of symptoms of food allergy. Sodium cromolyn may be used prophylactically even though there are no controlled studies certifying its efficacy. The only etiologic treatment of food allergy is specific desensitization. Sublingual-oral-specific desensitization has been used by our group for the treatment of food-allergic patients with a high percentage of success.