, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 33-57

Particle swarm optimization

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Abstract

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has undergone many changes since its introduction in 1995. As researchers have learned about the technique, they have derived new versions, developed new applications, and published theoretical studies of the effects of the various parameters and aspects of the algorithm. This paper comprises a snapshot of particle swarming from the authors’ perspective, including variations in the algorithm, current and ongoing research, applications and open problems.