Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 71–78

Seepage analysis of Upper Gotvand Dam concerning gypsum karstification (2D and 3D approaches)


  • Jamshid Sadrekarimi
    • Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversity of Tabriz
  • Majid Kiyani
    • Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversity of Tabriz
  • Behnam Fakhri
    • Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversity of Tabriz
    • Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversity of Mazandaran
  • Amin Barari
    • Department of Cicil EngineeringAalborg University
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11709-010-0083-5

Cite this article as:
Sadrekarimi, J., Kiyani, M., Fakhri, B. et al. Front. Archit. Civ. Eng. China (2011) 5: 71. doi:10.1007/s11709-010-0083-5


Upper Gotvand Dam is constructed on the Karun River at the south west of Iran. In this paper, 2D and 3D models of the dam together with the foundation and abutments were established, and several seepage analyses were carried out. Then, the gypsum veins that are scattered throughout the foundation ground were included in the models, and the seepage pattern, considering the dissolution law of gypsum, was analyzed. It was disclosed that the discharge fluxes obtained from 2D and 3D analyses are not similar, and the discharge flux in 3D model is about four times that of the 2D model. Also, the 3D model locates the phreatic surface somewhat higher than the 2D model. This means that the 2D model estimates lower pore water pressure pattern in comparison with the 3D model. These may be attributed to the fact that with 2D model the lateral components of vectors of seepage velocity are ignored. In the current case, the rate of increase of discharge flux due to dissolution of gypsum veins was obtained to be a thirdorder function of the aperture width. In spite of the fact that the grout curtain is designed to be about 170 m deep, however, complete dissolve of gypsum will severely increase the discharge flux through the foundation ground.


Upper Gotvand Damseepage analysisgypsum veins3D modeldischarge flux
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© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011