Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding Reduces Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Blood Inflammation in Nondiabetic Morbidly Obese Individuals
Significant and sustained excess weight loss (EWL) appears to reduce the risk of obesity-related comorbidities (insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and inflammation), but this has been primarily shown in adult diabetic obese patients. We evaluated whether the EWL obtained 3 years after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) improves the metabolic phenotype in nondiabetic morbidly obese (NDMO) individuals from south Italy.
Serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples from 20 obese individuals (median BMI = 41.5 kg/m2) before (T0) and after LAGB (T1) and from 10 controls (median BMI = 22.8 kg/m2) were taken. Serum leptin, adiponectin, C reactive protein (CRP), and main analyte levels were evaluated by routine methods or immunoassay. In SAT, adipocyte size was measured by hematoxylin/eosin staining, cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) macrophage infiltration marker by immunohistochemistry, and adiponectin, adiponectin receptors 1 and 2, and interleukin 6 (IL6) messenger RNAs by qRT-PCR.
The average EWL was 66.7 %, and CRP, triglycerides, hepatic markers, leptin levels, homeostasis model assessment, and the leptin/adiponectin ratio were lower (p < 0.05) at T1 than at T0. The expression of small adipocytes and adiponectin was increased (p < 0.05), and inflammation markers (CD68 and IL6) decreased (p < 0.05) at T1 vs. T0. At linear regression multivariate analysis, over 90 % (R2 = 0.905) of EWL (dependent variable) was explained by CD68, adiponectinemia, triglyceridemia, CRP, and total protein levels.
The EWL obtained 3 years after LAGB resulted in an improvement of lipid metabolism and a reduction of inflammation in NDMO patients, thereby decreasing the risk of obesity-associated diseases.