Long-Term Effects of Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension and Dyslipidaemia in Morbidly Obese Patients
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- Dogan, K., Betzel, B., Homan, J. et al. OBES SURG (2014) 24: 1835. doi:10.1007/s11695-014-1310-2
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Severely obese patients have an increased risk for developing metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidaemia (DL) and hypertension (HT). The aim of the present study is to research the effect of a primary laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) on T2DM, HT and DL in the long-term.
Fifty-two out of 89 (58 %) adult severely obese patients with T2DM who had received a LRYGB between January 2000 and December 2008 were evaluated. Primary outcome of evaluation was remission of T2DM according to the definition of 2009 consensus statement. Complete remission was defined as achievement fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of <5.6 mmol/l (<100.8 mg/dL) and HbA1c <42 mmol/mol (<6.0 %)) without glucose-lowering medication for at least 1 year. Partial remission was defined as a FPG of 5.6–6.9 mmol/l (100.8–124.2 mg/dL) and HbA1c 42–48 mmol/mol (6.0–6.5 %), without glucose-lowering medication for at least 1 year. Remission of T2DM was considered if the patient met the criteria for complete or partial remission. Secondary outcomes were remission of HT, DL and changes in medication use.
Patients had a mean age of 47.5 ± 9.6 years, body mass index of 46.6 ± 6.4 kg/m2 and a mean duration of T2DM of 6.1 ± 5.4 years at the time of surgery. The mean post-operative follow-up period was 6.9 ± 2.3 years. At the end of the follow-up, mean weight loss was 60 ± 24 % excess weight loss (EWL) and 26 ± 10 % total body weight loss (TBWL). Mean HbA1c level had significantly decreased from 64.8 ± 19.7 mmol/mol to 46.4 ± 12.9 mmol/l (p < 0.0001). Overall medication use was reduced from 85 % to 37 % of the patients (p < 0.0001), while the number of insulin users was reduced from 40 % to 6 % (p < 0.0001). Nineteen percent of the patients had a relapse of T2DM during follow-up. Pre-operative HbA1ac level (odds ratio 0.911, p = 0.020) and duration of T2DM (odds ratio 0.637, p = 0.010) were independent risk factors for failed remission of T2DM. The number of patients with HT was significantly reduced from 73 % to 54 % (p = 0.042), and number of patients with DL was non-significantly decreased from 71 % to 54 % (p = 0.068).
The laparoscopic RYGB operation results in a sustained EWL of 60 % (26 % TBWL) with 52 % long-term remission of T2DM. However, 19 % of the patients had a relapse of their T2DM. Furthermore, HT and DL improved markedly.