Obesity Surgery

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 343–348

Vitamin D Status 10 Years After Primary Gastric Bypass: Gravely High Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D and Raised PTH Levels


    • Division of Internal Medicine, Department of EndocrinologyÖrebro University Hospital
  • Ingmar Näslund
    • Division of SurgeryÖrebro University Hospital
  • David Edholm
    • Department of Surgical SciencesUppsala University
  • Magnus Sundbom
    • Department of Surgical SciencesUppsala University
  • F. Anders Karlsson
    • Institute of Medical SciencesUppsala University
  • Eva Rask
    • Centre for Health Care SciencesÖrebro University Hospital
Original Contributions

DOI: 10.1007/s11695-013-1104-y

Cite this article as:
Karefylakis, C., Näslund, I., Edholm, D. et al. OBES SURG (2014) 24: 343. doi:10.1007/s11695-013-1104-y



The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Secondly, we have tried to assess predictors for vitamin D deficiency.


Five hundred thirty-seven patients who underwent primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery between 1993 and 2003 at the Örebro University Hospital and Uppsala University Hospital were eligible for the study. Patients were asked to provide a blood sample between November 2009 and June 2010 and to complete a questionnaire about their postoperative health status. Serum values of 25-OH vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium were determined.


Follow-up was completed in 293 patients, of which 83 % were female, with an age of 49 ± 9.9 years after a median time of 11 ± 2.8 years. Vitamin D, PTH and albumin-corrected calcium values were 42 ± 20.4 nmol/L, 89.1 ± 52.7 ng/L and 2.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L, respectively. Of all patients, 65 % were vitamin D deficient, i.e. 25-OH vitamin D <50 nmol/L, and 69 % had PTH above the upper normal reference range, i.e. >73 ng/L. Vitamin D was inversely correlated with PTH levels (p < 0.001) and positively correlated with calcium (p = 0.016). Vitamin D did not correlate with ALP. The only factor found to predict vitamin D deficiency was high preoperative body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.008), whereas gender, age, time after surgery and BMI at follow-up did not.


Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were confirmed in our study because 65 % of patients had vitamin D deficiency, and 69 % had increased PTH levels more than 10 years after surgery. These data are alarming and highlight the need for improved long-term follow-up. Vitamin D deficiency does not seem to progress with time after surgery, possibly due to weight loss. Only preoperative BMI, cutoff point 43 kg/m2, was a predictor of vitamin D deficiency at follow-up. Improved long-term follow-up of patients that undergo RYGB is needed.


Vitamin DGastric bypassHyperparathyroidismLong-term follow-up

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013