The Personality Assessment Inventory: Clinical Utility, Psychometric Properties, and Normative Data for Bariatric Surgery Candidates
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), an overall measure of personality and psychopathology, features a number of dimensions that may be useful in the psychological assessment of bariatric surgery candidates. However, its clinical utility is limited because psychometric properties of the PAI with bariatric surgery candidates have never been evaluated, and normative data for this population have never been published.
We examined the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the PAI with a large sample of bariatric surgery candidates (n = 546) presenting for evaluation in an urban medical center. Internal consistency reliability analyses were performed on the PAI full scales and subscales. Exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis with oblique rotation was performed and the results compared with community, clinical, and medical samples. Normative data and scale elevation frequencies for the bariatric sample are presented.
Alpha coefficients and mean interitem correlations were acceptable and similar to the test standardization samples. Factor analyses supported the consistency of the underlying factor structure with bariatric surgery candidates and also revealed a factor for warmth and social support. Normative data indicate that overall bariatric surgery candidates appear quite similar to the community standardization sample. Sixteen percent of candidates reported significant (T ≥ 70) somatic complaints, consistent with the greater health problems in this sample.
Our findings support the clinical utility of the PAI in the psychological assessment of bariatric surgery candidates. The availability of PAI normative data and profile elevation statistics will help to facilitate clinical interpretation and inform treatment recommendations for candidates undergoing bariatric surgery.
- National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. NIH Publication 98-4083; 1998.
- Greenberg I, Perna F, Kaplan M, et al. Behavioral and psychological factors in the assessment and treatment of obesity surgery patients. Obes Res. 2005;13:244–9. CrossRef
- Marcus M, Kalarchian M, Courcoulas A. Psychological evaluation and follow-up of bariatric surgery candidates. Am J Psychiat. 2009;166:285–91. CrossRef
- American Society of Bariatric Surgeons. Retrieved 3/26/09 from http://www.asbs.org. 2009.
- Sarwer DB, Bohn NI, Gibbons LM, et al. Psychiatric diagnosis and psychiatric treatment among bariatric surgery candidates. Obes Surg. 2004;14:1148–56. CrossRef
- Bauchowitz AU, Gonderer-Frederick LA, Olsbrich ME, et al. Psychosocial evaluation of bariatric surgery candidates: a survey of present practices. Psychosom Med. 2005;67:825–32. CrossRef
- Walfish S, Vance D, Fabricatore AN. Psychological evaluation of bariatric surgery applicants: procedures and reasons for delay or denial of surgery. Obes Surg. 2007;17:1578–83. CrossRef
- Morey LC. Personality assessment inventory professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1991.
- Helmes E. A modern instrument for evaluation psychopathology. J Pers Assess. 1993;61:414–7. CrossRef
- Messick S. Validity. In: Linn RL, editor. Educational measurement. 2nd ed. New York: MacMillan; 1989. p. 13–103.
- Streiner DL. Starting at the beginning: an introduction to coefficient alpha and internal consistency. J Pers Assess. 2003;80:99–103. CrossRef
- Mauri M, Rucci P, Calderone A, et al. Axis I and II disorders and quality of life in bariatric surgery candidates. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:295–301. CrossRef
- Kalarchian M, et al. Psychiatric disorders among bariatric surgery candidates: relationship to obesity and functional health status. Am J Psychiatr. 2007;162:328–34. CrossRef
- Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck depression inventory. 2nd ed. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation; 1996.
- Tasca GA, Wood J, Demidenko N, et al. Using the PAI with an eating disordered population: scale characteristics, factor structure, and differences among diagnostic groups. J Pers Assess. 2002;79:337–56. CrossRef
- Karlin BE, Creech SK, Grimes JS, et al. The Personality Assessment Inventory with chronic pain patients: psychometric properties and clinical utility. J Clin Psychology. 2005;61:1571–85. CrossRef
- Schinka JA. Personality Assessment Inventory scale characteristics and factor structure in the assessment of alcohol dependency. J Pers Assess. 1995;64:101–11. CrossRef
- Tabatchnik BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. 2nd ed. NY: HarperCollins; 1989.
- Costello AB, Osborne JW. Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Pract Assess Res Eval. 2005;10:1–9.
- Streiner DL, Norman GR. Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their construction and use. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008.
- Clark LA, Watson D. Constructing validity: basic issues in objective scale development. Psychol Assess. 1995;7:309–19. Special issue: Methodological issues in psychological assessment research. CrossRef
- Morey LC. Personality Assessment Inventory Professional Manual. 2nd ed. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources; 2007.
- Hoelzle JB, Meyer GJ. The invariant component structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory full scales. J Pers Assess. 2009;91:175–86. CrossRef
- Todd WR. Race/ethnicity and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI): the impact of culture on diagnostic testing in a college counseling center (Doctoral dissertation, Temple University). Diss Abstr Int. 2005;65:5425.
- Kleiner K, Gold M, Frost-Pineda K, et al. Body mass index and alcohol use. J Addict Dis. 2003;23:105–18. CrossRef
- The Personality Assessment Inventory: Clinical Utility, Psychometric Properties, and Normative Data for Bariatric Surgery Candidates
Volume 20, Issue 6 , pp 722-731
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Bariatric surgery
- Gastric bypass
- Psychological evaluation
- Psychosocial assessment
- Personality Assessment Inventory
- Industry Sectors