Frontiers of Medicine

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 33–41

The impact of hypoxia in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis

  • Carmen Chak-Lui Wong
  • Alan Ka-Lun Kai
  • Irene Oi-Lin Ng
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s11684-013-0301-3

Cite this article as:
Wong, C.CL., Kai, A.KL. & Ng, I.OL. Front. Med. (2014) 8: 33. doi:10.1007/s11684-013-0301-3

Abstract

Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hypoxia stabilizes transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), to activate gene transcription. Expression of HIF is closely associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in HCC. HIF mediates expression of genes that are involved in every step of HCC metastasis including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of the extracellular matrix, intravasation, extravasation, and secondary growth of the metastases. Because HIF is the central regulator of HCC metastasis, HIF inhibitors are attractive tools when used alone or as combined treatment to curb HCC metastasis. This review will summarize the current findings on the impact of hypoxia/HIF in HCC, with a particular focus on cancer metastasis.

Keywords

hypoxia hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Chak-Lui Wong
    • 1
  • Alan Ka-Lun Kai
    • 1
  • Irene Oi-Lin Ng
    • 1
  1. 1.The State Key Laboratory for Liver Research and Department of PathologyThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina