, Volume 22, Issue 2-3, pp 192-206
Date: 06 Dec 2012

Development of Particle Interface Bonding in Thermal Spray Coatings: A Review

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Thermal spray ceramic coatings deposited following the conventional routine exhibit a typical lamellar structure with a limited interface bonding ratio. The bonding between particles in the coating dominates coating properties and performance. In this review paper, the bonding formation at the interface between thin lamellae in the coating is examined. The effect of spray parameters on the bonding ratio is presented to reveal the main droplet parameters controlling bonding formation, which reveals that the temperature of the spray particle rather than its velocity dominates the bonding formation. The limitation to increase significantly the ceramic particle temperature inherent to the thermal spray process leads to the observation of a maximum bonding ratio of about 32%, while through controlling the surface temperature of the coating prior to molten droplet impact, the bonding at the lamellar interface can be significantly increased. Consequently, it is shown that with the proper selection of deposition conditions and control of the deposition temperature, the bonding ratio of ceramic deposits can be altered from a maximum of 32% for a conventional deposit to a maximum of 100%. Such wide adjustability of the lamellar bonding opens new possibilities for using thermal spray coatings in various applications requiring different microstructures and properties. The examination of recent studies shows that the bonding control makes it possible to fabricate porous deposits through surface-molten particles. Such an approach could be applied for the fabrication of porous materials, the deposition of high temperature abradable ceramic coatings, and for forming functional structured surfaces, such as a surface with super-hydrophobicity or a solid oxide fuel cell cathode interface with high specific surface area and high catalytic performance. Furthermore, complete interface bonding leads to crystalline structure control of individual splats through epitaxial grain growth.

This article is an invited paper selected from presentations at the 2012 International Thermal Spray Conference and has been expanded from the original presentation. It is simultaneously published in Thermal Spray 2012: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference, Air, Land, Water, and the Human Body: Thermal Spray Science and Applications, Houston, Texas, USA, May 21-24, 2012, Basil R. Marple, Arvind Agarwal, Laura Filofteia-Toma, Margaret M. Hyland, Yuk-Chiu Lau, Chang-Jiu Li, Rogerio S. Lima, and André McDonald, Ed., ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 2012.