Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 586–601

A Fitting Formula for Predicting Droplet Mean Diameter for Various Liquid in Effervescent Atomization Spray

Peer Reviewed

DOI: 10.1007/s11666-009-9457-4

Cite this article as:
Qian, L., Lin, J. & Xiong, H. J Therm Spray Tech (2010) 19: 586. doi:10.1007/s11666-009-9457-4

Abstract

The outflow of the effervescent atomization spray is simulated by a comprehensive numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equation and the particle tracking method. The droplet mean diameter under different operating conditions and liquid properties were calculated. Based on the extensive computations, a formula relating droplet Sauter mean diameter to the operating conditions and liquid physical parameters were obtained with curve fitting technique. The results calculated from the formulae were compared with the experimental data and a good agreement was obtained. The formulae can be used to predict the droplet mean diameter for various Newtonian liquid in axisymmetric effervescent atomization spray conveniently and effectively.

Keywords

effervescent atomization sprayfitting formulaliquid physical propertyoperating conditions

Nomenclature

ALR

air-to-liquid ratio (by mass)

\( C_{\text{D}} \)

drag coefficient

\( D_{\text{noz}} \)

nozzle diameter (m)

dl

droplet diameter (m)

e

internal energy (J)

F

force (N)

k, kk

dimensionless coefficient

\( \dot{m}_{\text{l}} \)

liquid mass flow rate (kg · s−1)

\( P_{\text{in}} \)

injection pressure (kg · m−1 s2)

Q

heat flux (W · m−2)

Re

Reynolds number (dimensionless)

sr

interface velocity slip ratio (dimensionless)

SMD

Sauter mean diameter (m)

SMD0

initial SMD after primary breakup (m)

u, v, w

velocity (m/s)

V

volume

x

radial coordinate (m)

y

axial coordinate (m)

Greek symbols

α

volume fraction of gas

ζ

deformation parameter

μ

dynamic viscosity (kg · m−1 · s−1)

ρ

density (kg · m−3)

σ

surface tension (kg · m−2)

ω

drop oscillation frequency (s−1)

Subscript

b

benchmark

cr

criteria

g

gas

l

liquid

o

orifice

p

particle

Copyright information

© ASM International 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and ControlZhejiang UniversityHangzhouP.R. China
  2. 2.China Jiliang UniversityHangzhouP.R. China